Heart Transplant Candidate Who Required Extra-Corporal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO)

  • Soumya Pandey
  • Terry HarvilleEmail author


  • The HLA laboratory typically requires 4–5 h to perform HLA typing studies and fluorescence/flow cytometric crossmatch (FCXM), therefore, the heart is typically transplanted prior to knowing the confirmatory typing and FCXM results

  • The FCXM is therefore known as a “retrospective” study, yet remains critically important for further decision making

  • The FCXM is performed by incubating donor lymphocytes with patient/recipient serum, and using an anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody to identify T lymphocytes and an anti-CD19 monoclonal antibody to identify B lymphocytes. Human antibodies from the recipient serum binding to proteins expressed on the donor lymphocytes are detected using an anti-human IgG antibody

  • Detection of C4d deposition in endomyocardial biopsy confirms antibody-mediated rejection


Extra-corporal membrane oxygenation Fluorescence cytometric crossmatch Anti-CD3 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pathology and Laboratory ServicesUniversity of Arkansas for Medical SciencesLittle RockUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Pathology and Laboratory Services, Pediatrics, and Internal MedicineUniversity of Arkansas for Medical SciencesLittle RockUSA

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