Breathlessness and Weight Loss

  • Sowmya ShashidharaEmail author
  • H. Koushik
  • Sangita Trivedi


  • Patients presenting with disproportionate hypoxia and pneumonia unresponsive to conventional antibiotics have a high index of suspicion for Pneumocystis pneumonia

  • Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia is an AIDS-defining infection

  • Placental macrophages and CD195 receptors are implicated in the pathogenesis of HIV

  • Prompt initiation of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) therapy can resolve cryptosporidiosis infection in patients with HIV, even with no antibiotic therapy

  • Exclusion of HIV infection is possible with antibody testing after at least 3 months of cessation of breastfeeding

  • Evaluation of side effects of anti-retroviral therapy is necessary during follow-ups


Highly active anti-retroviral therapy AIDS Pneumocystis jirovecii 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sowmya Shashidhara
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • H. Koushik
    • 1
  • Sangita Trivedi
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Pediatrics, Kasturba Medical CollegeManipal UniversityManipalIndia
  2. 2.Network of Immunity in Infection, Malignancy and Autoimmunity (NIIMA), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN)ManipalIndia
  3. 3.Department of Pediatrics, Government Medical CollegeVeer Narmad South Gujarat UniversitySuratIndia

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