Advertisement

Sex-, Age-, and Ethnicity-Dependent Variation in Body Composition: Can There Be a Single Cutoff?

  • Maria Cristina Gonzalez
  • Jingjie Xiao
  • Ilana Roitman Disi
Chapter

Abstract

Among all the body compartments, muscle stands as an important prognostic factor in clinical settings. Several factors may determine the body composition variability, such as age, sex, and ethnicity. Muscle mass gradually declines with normal aging, and the rate of decline can be influenced by sex and ethnicity. In general, men have a higher muscularity than women, and the amount of muscle mass differs among the ethnicities (African American > White > Hispanic > Asian). Several body composition analysis techniques can be used for muscle mass assessment. Low muscularity is usually defined as muscle mass below the normative values of a healthy young population or values that are associated with a higher risk for negative outcomes in clinical situations. The association between muscle and adverse health outcomes may be jeopardized if sex, age, and ethnic specific cutoff values are not used to identify low muscularity.

Keywords

Body composition assessment Muscle mass Sarcopenia Normative vales Cirrhosis 

References

  1. 1.
    Thibault R, Genton L, Pichard C. Body composition: why, when and for who? Clin Nutr. 2012;31(4):435–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Prado CM, Purcell SA, Alish C, et al. Implications of low muscle mass across the continuum of care: a narrative review. Ann Med. 2018:1–19.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gonzalez MC, Correia M, Heymsfield SB. A requiem for BMI in the clinical setting. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2017;20(5):314–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wells JC. Sexual dimorphism of body composition. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;21(3):415–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Arts IM, Pillen S, Overeem S, et al. Rise and fall of skeletal muscle size over the entire life span. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007;55(7):1150–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Bahat G, Bauer J, et al. Sarcopenia: revised European consensus on definition and diagnosis. Age Ageing. 2018.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Barbosa-Silva TG, Menezes AM, Bielemann RM, et al. Enhancing SARC-F: improving sarcopenia screening in the clinical practice. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2016;17(12):1136–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kawakami R, Murakami H, Sanada K, et al. Calf circumference as a surrogate marker of muscle mass for diagnosing sarcopenia in Japanese men and women. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2015;15(8):969–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shaw SC, Dennison EM, Cooper C. Epidemiology of sarcopenia: determinants throughout the Life course. Calcif Tissue Int. 2017;101(3):229–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Goodpaster BH, Park SW, Harris TB, et al. The loss of skeletal muscle strength, mass, and quality in older adults: the health, aging and body composition study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2006;61(10):1059–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    von Haehling S, Morley JE, Anker SD. An overview of sarcopenia: facts and numbers on prevalence and clinical impact. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2010;1(2):129–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Clark P, Denova-Gutierrez E, Ambrosi R, et al. Reference values of Total lean mass, appendicular lean mass, and fat mass measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in a healthy Mexican population. Calcif Tissue Int. 2016;99(5):462–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Landi F, Calvani R, Tosato M, et al. Age-related variations of muscle mass, strength, and physical performance in community-dwellers: results from the Milan EXPO survey. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2017;18(1):88 e17–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    He Q, Heo M, Heshka S, et al. Total body potassium differs by sex and race across the adult age span. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78(1):72–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Silva AM, Shen W, Heo M, et al. Ethnicity-related skeletal muscle differences across the lifespan. Am J Hum Biol. 2010;22(1):76–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Xiao Z, Guo B, Gong J, et al. Sex- and age-specific percentiles of body composition indices for Chinese adults using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Eur J Nutr. 2017;56(7):2393–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wulan SN, Westerterp KR, Plasqui G. Ethnic differences in body composition and the associated metabolic profile: a comparative study between Asians and Caucasians. Maturitas. 2010;65(4):315–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gallagher D, Visser M, De Meersman RE, et al. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass: effects of age, gender, and ethnicity. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1997;83(1):229–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Alkahtani SA. A cross-sectional study on sarcopenia using different methods: reference values for healthy Saudi young men. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2017;18(1):119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bosy-Westphal A, Muller MJ. Identification of skeletal muscle mass depletion across age and BMI groups in health and disease--there is need for a unified definition. Int J Obes. 2015;39(3):379–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ebadi M, Montano-Loza AJ. Insights on clinical relevance of sarcopenia in patients with cirrhosis and sepsis. Liver Int. 2018;38(5):786–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chen LK, Liu LK, Woo J, et al. Sarcopenia in Asia: consensus report of the Asian working Group for Sarcopenia. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2014;15(2):95–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fielding RA, Vellas B, Evans WJ, et al. Sarcopenia: an undiagnosed condition in older adults. Current consensus definition: prevalence, etiology, and consequences. International working group on sarcopenia. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2011;12(4):249–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Carey EJ, Lai JC, Wang CW, et al. A multicenter study to define sarcopenia in patients with end-stage liver disease. Liver Transpl. 2017;23(5):625–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Martin L, Birdsell L, Macdonald N, et al. Cancer cachexia in the age of obesity: skeletal muscle depletion is a powerful prognostic factor, independent of body mass index. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31(12):1539–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Prado CM, Lieffers JR, McCargar LJ, et al. Prevalence and clinical implications of sarcopenic obesity in patients with solid tumours of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts: a population-based study. Lancet Oncol. 2008;9(7):629–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Benjamin J, Shasthry V, Kaal CR, et al. Characterization of body composition and definition of sarcopenia in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis: a computed tomography based study. Liver Int. 2017;37(11):1668–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Derstine BA, Holcombe SA, Ross BE, et al. Skeletal muscle cutoff values for sarcopenia diagnosis using T10 to L5 measurements in a healthy US population. Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):11369.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    van der Werf A, Langius JAE, de van de Schueren MAE, et al. Percentiles for skeletal muscle index, area and radiation attenuation based on computed tomography imaging in a healthy Caucasian population. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2018;72(2):288–96.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Belarmino G, Gonzalez MC, Sala P, et al. Diagnosing sarcopenia in male patients with cirrhosis by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry estimates of appendicular skeletal muscle mass. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2018;42(1):24–36.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Cristina Gonzalez
    • 1
  • Jingjie Xiao
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Ilana Roitman Disi
    • 5
  1. 1.Catholic University of PelotasPelotasBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional ScienceUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  3. 3.Division of Palliative Care Medicine, Department of OncologyUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  4. 4.Covenant Health Palliative InstituteEdmontonCanada
  5. 5.Division of Anesthesia, Faculty of Medicine Foundation of the University of Sao Paulo, Cancer Institute of Sao PauloSao PauloBrazil

Personalised recommendations