Advertisement

Videofluoroscopic Evaluation of the Swallow in Infants and Children

  • Bryn K. Olson-GrebEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter provides a brief overview of videofluoroscopic swallow studies (VFSS) in the pediatric population. Topics include indications for VFSS, relevant anatomy and physiology, the role of the speech-language pathologist, and the role of VFSS in defining oropharyngeal dysphagia and guiding treatment.

Keywords

Videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) Modified barium swallow study (MBSS) Instrumental swallow evaluation Oropharyngeal dysphagia Pediatric dysphagia Aspiration Pediatric swallowing Pediatric swallow evaluation 

References

  1. 1.
    Dodrill P, Gosa MM. Pediatric dysphagia: physiology, assessment, and management. Ann Nutr Metab. 2015;66(5):24–31.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Arvedson J, Rogers B, Buck G, Smart P, Msall M. Silent aspiration prominent in children with dysphagia. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1994;28(2–3):173–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lefton-Greif MA, Arvedson JC. Pediatric feeding/swallowing: yesterday, today, and tomorrow. Semin Speech Lang. 2016;37(4):298–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Adult Dysphagia. (Practice Portal). n.d. Retrieved July, 30, 2018 from www.asha.org/Practice-Portal/Clinical-Topics/Adult-Dysphagia/.
  5. 5.
    Arvedson JC, Lefton-Greif MA. Instrumental assessment of pediatric dysphagia. Semin Speech Lang. 2017;38(2):135–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Logemann AJ. The evaluation and treatment of swallowing disorders. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1998;6(6):395–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Miller CK. Aspiration and swallowing dysfunction in pediatric patients. ICAN Infant Child Adolesc Nutr. 2011;3(6):336–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Newman AL, Cleveland HR, Blickman GJ, Hillman ER, Jaramillo ED. Videofluoroscopic analysis of the infant swallow. Investig Radiol. 1991;26(10):870–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ciucci M, Jones CA, Malandraki GA, Hutcheson KA. Dysphagia practice in 2035: beyond fluorography, thickener, and electrical stimulation. Semin Speech Lang. 2016;37(3):201–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Arvedson JC. Pediatric swallowing and feeding: assessment and management. 2nd ed. Australia: Singular Thomson Learning; 2002.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hiorns MP, Ryan MM. Current practice in paediatric videofluoroscopy. Pediatr Radiol. 2006;36(9):911–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ck M. Aspiration and swallowing dysfunction in pediatric patients. Infant Child Adolesc Nutr ICAN. 2011;3(6):336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Anonymous. Child life services. (Report). Pediatrics. 2014;133(5):e1471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Stucky E, Eichner J, Melzer S, Percelay J. Child life services. (Policy statement). Pediatrics. 2006;118(4):1757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Newman L, Cleveland RH, Hillman R, Jaramillo D, Blickman J. Developmental-changes in swallowing in the normal infant. Radiology. 1992;185:313–4.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Geyer LA, McGowan JS. Technology. Positioning infants and children for videofluoroscopic swallowing function studies. Infants Young Child Interdiscip J Early Childhood Interv. 1995;8(2):58–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Arvedson JC, Lefton-Greif MA. Pediatric videofluoroscopic swallow studies: a professional manual with caregiver guidelines. San Antonio: Communication Skill Builders; 1998.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Logemann JA, Lazarus CL, Keeley SP, Sanchez A, Rademaker AW. Effectiveness of four hours of education in interpretation of radiographic studies. Int Multidiscip J Devoted Swallowing Disord. 2000;15(4):180–3.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cichero J, Nicholson T, Dodrill P. Liquid barium is not representative of infant formula: characterisation of rheological and material properties. Dysphagia. 2011;26(3):264–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cichero JA, Jackson O, Halley PJ, Murdoch BE. How thick is thick? Multicenter study of the rheological and material property characteristics of mealtime fluids and videofluoroscopy fluids. Dysphagia. 2000;15(4):188–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Budke J, Garcia JM, Chambers E. Comparisons of thickened beverages using line spread measurements. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(9):1532–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nicosia M, Robbins J. The usefulness of the line spread test as a measure of liquid consistency. Dysphagia. 2007;22(4):306–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cichero JAY, Lam P, Steele CM, Hanson B, Chen J, Dantas RO, et al. Development of international terminology and definitions for texture-modified foods and thickened fluids used in dysphagia management: the IDDSI framework. (International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative) (report) (author abstract). Dysphagia. 2017;32(2):293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Marcason W. What is the international dysphagia diet standardisation initiative? J Acad Nutr Diet. 2017;117(4):652.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Steele CM, Namasivayam-Macdonald AM, Guida BT, Cichero JA, Duivestein J, Hanson B, et al. Creation and initial validation of the international dysphagia diet standardisation initiative functional diet scale. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2018;99(5):934–44.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Su M, Zheng G, Chen Y, Xie H, Han W, Yang Q, et al. Clinical applications of IDDSI framework for texture recommendation for dysphagia patients. J Texture Stud. 2018;49(1):2–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lam P, Stanschus S, Zaman R, Cichero JA. The international dysphagia diet standardisation initiative (IDDSI) framework: the Kempen pilot. Br J Neurosci Nurs. 2017;13(Sup2):S18–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bonilha H, Humphries K, Blair J, Hill E, McGrattan K, Carnes B, et al. Radiation exposure time during MBSS: influence of swallowing impairment severity, medical diagnosis, clinician experience, and standardized protocol use. Dysphagia. 2013;28(1):77–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lefton-Greif M, McGrattan K, Carson K, Pinto J, Wright J, Martin-Harris B. First steps towards development of an instrument for the reproducible quantification of oropharyngeal swallow physiology in bottle-fed children. Dedicated Adv Art Sci Deglutology. 2018;33(1):76–82.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Martin-Harris B, Humphries K, Garand KL. The modified barium swallow impairment profile (MBSImP™©) – innovation, dissemination and implementation. Perspect ASHA Spec Interes Groups. 2017;2(13):129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sandidge J. The modified barium swallow impairment profile (MBSImP): a new standard physiologic approach to swallowing assessment and targeted treatment. Perspect Swallowing Swallowing Disord (Dysphagia). 2009;18(4):117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Martin-Harris B, Brodsky M, Michel Y, Castell D, Schleicher M, Sandidge J, et al. MBS measurement tool for swallow impairment— MBSImp: establishing a standard. Dysphagia. 2008;23(4):392–405.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rosenbek JC, Robbins JA, Roecker EB, Coyle JL, Wood JL. A penetration-aspiration scale. Dysphagia. 1996;11(2):93–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Linden P, Siebens AA. Dysphagia: predicting laryngeal penetration. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1983;64(6):281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Alnassar M, Oudjhane K, Davila J. Nasogastric tubes and videofluoroscopic swallowing studies in children. Pediatr Radiol. 2011;41(3):317–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Huggins PS, Tuomi SK, Young C. Effects of nasogastric tubes on the young, normal swallowing mechanism. Int Multidiscip J Devoted Swallowing Disord. 1999;14(3):157–61.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mamun K, Lim J. Role of nasogastric tube in preventing aspiration pneumonia in patients with dysphagia. Singap Med J. 2005;46(11):627–31.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Strauss KJ, Kaste SC. The ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) concept in pediatric interventional and fluoroscopic imaging: striving to keep radiation doses as low as possible during fluoroscopy of pediatric patients – a white paper executive summary. Pediatr Radiol. 2006;36(Suppl 2):110–2.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Leung RS. Radiation protection of the child from diagnostic imaging. Curr Pediatr Rev. 2015;11(4):235–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Aufrichtig R, Xue P, Thomas CW, Gilmore GC, Wilson DL. Perceptual comparison of pulsed and continuous fluoroscopy. Med Phys. 1994;21(2):245–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Cohen MD. Can we use pulsed fluoroscopy to decrease the radiation dose during video fluoroscopic feeding studies in children? Clin Radiol. 2009;64(1):70–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bonilha HS, Blair J, Carnes B, Huda W, Humphries K, McGrattan K, et al. Preliminary investigation of the effect of pulse rate on judgments of swallowing impairment and treatment recommendations.(author abstract). Dysphagia. 2013;28(4):528.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    de Benedictis FM, Carnielli VP, de Benedictis D. Aspiration lung disease. Pediatr Clin N Am. 2009;56(1):173–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Arvedson JC. Management of pediatric dysphagia. Otolaryngol Clin N Am. 1998;31(3):453–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Woods CW, Oliver T, Lewis K, Yang Q. Development of necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants receiving thickened feeds using SimplyThick[R].(PERINATAL/NEONATAL CASE PRESENTATION)(CASE study). J Perinatol. 2012;32(2):150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gosa MM, Corkins MR. Necrotizing enterocolitis and the use of thickened liquids for infants with dysphagia. Perspect Swallowing Swallowing Disord (Dysphagia). 2015;24(2):44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Beal J, Silverman B, Bellant J, Young TE, Klontz K. Late onset necrotizing enterocolitis in infants following use of a xanthan gum-containing thickening agent. J Pediatr. 2012;161(2):354–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Brigham S. FDA expands caution about simply thick. Charleston. 2012. p. L.11.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Carignan CC, Punshon T, Karagas MR, Cottingham KL. Potential exposure to arsenic from infant Rice cereal. Ann Glob Health. 2016;82(1):221–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Shibata T, Meng C, Umoren J, West H. Risk assessment of arsenic in rice cereal and other dietary sources for infants and toddlers in the U.S. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016;13(4):1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Gosa M, Schooling T, Coleman J. Thickened liquids as a treatment for children with dysphagia and associated adverse effects: a systematic review. ICAN Infant Child Adolesc Nutr. 2011;3(6):344–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Clark L, Kennedy G, Pring T, Hird M. Improving bottle feeding in preterm infants: Investigating the elevated side-lying position. Infant. 2007;3:354–8.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Park JJ, Thoyre AS, Knafl BG, Hodges BE, Nix BW. Efficacy of semielevated side- lying positioning during bottle-feeding of very preterm infants: a pilot study. J Perinat Neonatal Nurs. 2014;28(1):69–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Wolter NE, Hernandez K, Irace AL, Davidson K, Perez JA, Larson K, et al. A systematic process for weaning children with aspiration from thickened fluids. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2018;144(1).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Jackman KT. Go with the flow: choosing a feeding system for infants in the Neonatal intensive care unit and beyond based on flow performance. Newborn Infant Nurs Rev. 2013;13(1):31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Pados FB, Park MJ, Thoyre BS, Estrem BH, Nix BW. Milk flow rates from bottle nipples used after hospital discharge. MCN. Am J Matern Child Nurs. 2016;41(4):237–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Pados B, Park J, Thoyre S, Estrem H, Nix W. Milk flow rates from bottle nipples used for feeding infants who are hospitalized. Am J Speech Lang Pathol (Online). 2015;24(4):671–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck SurgeryUniversity of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public HealthMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations