Advertisement

‘The People Shall Govern’: The Codification of Ideas

  • Heidi Brooks
Chapter
Part of the The Theories, Concepts and Practices of Democracy book series (PSTCD)

Abstract

This chapter looks at the formalising of the ANC’s ideas about democracy and at the framing of participation in constitutional language. It covers the period from the 1986 to the early 1990s during which the movement began to set out more formally, and in writing, what it envisaged in a democratic state. The chapter examines the ideas about citizen participation that emerged during this process, identifying two particularly important shifts: Firstly, a dampening of some of the ANC’s more radical commitments to popular participation and a new commitment to political pluralism and the protection of individual rights; and, secondly, the linking of participatory democracy to local government specifically. The ANC’s acceptance during this period of some classically ‘liberal democratic’ principles was a key contributor to the shaping of South Africa’s democratic framework. The location of participatory democracy in the local sphere was especially critical for the legislation that followed. The chapter brings together tensions in the theory and practice of democracy amongst civic and community representatives involved in local government negotiation, and the more centralised version of participation amongst the national ANC leadership.

References

  1. Ad Hoc Technical Committee on Local Government. (1995, July 31). Summary report on local government submissions by various stakeholders to the Constitutional Assembly Theme Committee Three. Compiled by the Ad Hoc Technical Committee on Local Government. Constitutional Court Archive: Francois Venter Collection, 3.3.3.2.Google Scholar
  2. Advisors to the Ad Hoc Committee on Local Government. (1995, May 15). The constitutional principles and local government. A discussion document prepared by the Advisors to the Ad Hoc Committee on Local Government. Constitutional Court Archive: Francois Venter Collection, 3.3.3.1. Theme Committee 3, documentation packs with agendas, minutes of meetings report - October 1994–30 May 1995.Google Scholar
  3. ANC. (1991a, November). Democracy. Mayibuye, 2(10), 36–37.Google Scholar
  4. ANC. (1991b, December). Democracy: Leadership, mandates and criticism. Mayibuye, 2(11), 36–37.Google Scholar
  5. ANC. (1992, May 31). Ready to govern: ANC policy guidelines for a democratic South Africa. As adopted at the National Conference. http://www.anc.org.za/show.php?id=227. Accessed 1 March 2011.
  6. ANC. (1995a, February 13). ANC preliminary submission: Theme Committee 4: Our broad vision of a bill of rights for South Africa. Theme Committee reports (Block 1). Constitutional Court Archive: CALS Collection, 7.3.1. Constitutional Assembly—Constitutional Committee.Google Scholar
  7. ANC. (1995b, June 8). Local government. Provisional submission to Constitutional Assembly Theme Committee 3, phase 4, political party submissions: ANC. Constitutional Court Archive: Francois Venter Collection, 3.3.3.2.Google Scholar
  8. ANC. (n.d.). Building post-apartheid local government. Report on the proposals of the Thornhill Committee for a new local government system, Estimated date c.1990. DISA: African National Congress—Reports. http://www.disa.ukzn.ac.za. Accessed 12 November 2013.
  9. ANC Constitution Committee (CC). (1986a, September 20). Memorandum to the NEC by the Constitution Committee. Foundations of government in a democratic South Africa. University of Fort Hare (UFH) NAHECS: Oliver Tambo Papers, Department of Legal and Constitutional Affairs, Constitutional Committee minutes/reports.Google Scholar
  10. ANC Constitution Committee (CC). (1986b, April 9). Constitutional Commission. Continuation of meeting. UFH NAHECS: Oliver Tambo Papers, Department of Legal and Constitutional Affairs, Constitutional Committee minutes/reports.Google Scholar
  11. ANC Constitution Committee (CC). (1986c). On non-central government structures. UFH NAHECS: Oliver Tambo papers, Department of Legal and Constitutional Affairs, Constitutional Committee minutes/reports.Google Scholar
  12. ANC Constitution Committee (CC). (1988a). Constitution guidelines and the in-house seminar. University of the Western Cape (UWC), Mayibuye Centre Archives: ANC Lusaka Collection, Department of Legal and Constitutional Affairs 1986–1991, MCH01-57.Google Scholar
  13. ANC Constitution Committee (CC). (1988b). Draft constitutional guidelines for a democratic South Africa. As drafted by the Constitution Committee of the African National Congress.Google Scholar
  14. ANC Constitution Committee (CC). (1990a, September 12). Commentary on the structure of a constitution for a new Republic of South Africa. Confidential, prepared by the Constitutional Committee, ANC. UFH NAHECS: Oliver Tambo Papers, Department of Legal and Constitutional Affairs, Constitutional Committee minutes/reports.Google Scholar
  15. ANC Constitution Committee (CC). (1990b, November 8). Bill of rights for a new South Africa—Working document. Introductory note. Historical Papers Research Archive, University of the Witwatersrand, Collection AG2510.Google Scholar
  16. ANC Constitution Committee (CC). (1991, April). Discussion document: Constitutional principles and structures for a democratic South Africa. ANC Constitutional Committee. UFH NAHECS: Luthuli House, Office of Walter Sisulu, Tripartite Alliance 1991–1994.Google Scholar
  17. ANC Constitution Committee (CC). (n.d.-a). The preliminary nature of the constitutional document. Historical Papers Research Archive, University of the Witwatersrand, Collection AG2510.Google Scholar
  18. ANC Constitution Committee (CC). (n.d.-b). The Freedom Charter and the constitution. Historical Papers Research Archive, University of the Witwatersrand, Collection AG2510.Google Scholar
  19. ANC Department of Legal and Constitutional Affairs (DLCA). (1986a, January 8). Minutes of the constitution commission proceedings. UFH NAHECS: Oliver Tambo Papers, Department of Legal and Constitutional Affairs, Constitutional Committee minutes/reports.Google Scholar
  20. ANC Department of Legal and Constitutional Affairs (DLCA). (1986b, May 1). Memorandum on multi-party system. UFH NAHECS: Oliver Tambo Papers, Department of Legal and Constitutional Affairs, Constitutional Committee minutes/reports.Google Scholar
  21. ANC Department of Legal and Constitutional Affairs (DLCA). (1986c, September). Departmental report for the NEC. Historical Papers Research Archive, University of the Witwatersrand, Collection AG2510.Google Scholar
  22. ANC Department of Legal and Constitutional Affairs (DLCA). (1987, February 16). DLCA report on the visit to the German Democratic Republic and the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. Report prepared by Penuel Maduna. UWC Mayibuye Centre Archives: ANC Lusaka Collection, MCH01-57.Google Scholar
  23. ANC Department of Legal and Constitutional Affairs (DLCA). (c.1990). Proposal of the Department of Legal and Constitutional Affairs. UFH NAHECS: ANC Zambia Mission, additions 2, discussion papers.Google Scholar
  24. ANC Department of Political Education (DPE). (1986, May). ANC Department of Political Education, syllabus: A course on lectures on the South African revolution (for discussion and comment). UWC Mayibuye Centre Archives: ANC Lusaka Collection MCH01-58.Google Scholar
  25. ANC Department of Political Education (DPE). (1986–1988). Department of Political Education: Broad outline of work. UWC Mayibuye Centre Archives: ANC Lusaka Collection MCH01-58.Google Scholar
  26. ANC Department of Political Education (DPE). (1989). ANC political school: Report No. 3/89: On course outlines in the catalogue. UWC Mayibuye Centre Archives: ANC Lusaka Collection MCH01-58.Google Scholar
  27. ANC National Executive Committee (NEC). (1987a). Statement of intent by the ANC (SA): A proposed constitution for a liberated South Africa. UFH NAHECS: Oliver Tambo Papers, Department of Legal and Constitutional Affairs, Constitutional Committee minutes/reports.Google Scholar
  28. ANC National Executive Committee (NEC). (1987b, January 8). Statement of the National Executive Committee on the occasion of the 75th anniversary of the ANC. UFH NAHECS: Oliver Tambo Papers.Google Scholar
  29. ANC National Executive Committee (NEC). (1987c, October 9). Statement of the National Executive Committee of the African National Congress on the question of negotiations. UFH NAHECS: Oliver Tambo Papers.Google Scholar
  30. ANC National Working Committee (NWC). (1986, February 7). Letter to Jack Simons from Ruth Mompati. ANC NWC. UFH NAHECS: Oliver Tambo Papers, Department of Legal and Constitutional Affairs, Constitutional Committee, correspondence.Google Scholar
  31. ANC National Working Committee: Sub-Committee (NWC S-C). (1986, February 1986). Report of the NWC Sub Committee on the report of the Legal and Constitutional Commission. UFH NAHECS: Oliver Tambo Papers, Department of Legal and Constitutional Affairs, Constitutional Committee minutes/reports.Google Scholar
  32. Asmal, K. (1990, August 3–5). Developing a human rights culture. Annual general meeting, National Association of Democratic Lawyers. UFH NAHECS: Oliver Tambo Papers.Google Scholar
  33. Asmal, K., Chidester, D., & Lubuisi, C. (2005). Legacy of freedom: The ANC’s human rights tradition. Johannesburg: Jonathan Ball.Google Scholar
  34. Atkinson, D. (1991). One city initiatives. In M. Swilling, R. Humphries, & K. Shubane (Eds.), Apartheid city in transition. Cape Town: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Bachrach, P., & Botwinick, A. (1992). Power and empowerment: A radical theory of participatory democracy. Philadelphia: Templeton University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Barber, B. (1984). Strong democracy. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  37. Botha, T. (1991, October 4–7). Civil society: The case of civics as autonomous organs of grassroots’ participation. Paper of the national consultative conference on local government and planning. Johannesburg. In Local government and planning for a democratic South Africa. Cape Town: Centre for Development Studies, University of the Western Cape.Google Scholar
  38. Botha, T. (1992, May). Civic associations as autonomous organs of grassroots’ participation. Theoria, 79‚ 57–74.Google Scholar
  39. Butler, A. (2013). Cyril Ramaphosa. Johannesburg: Jacana.Google Scholar
  40. Centre for Development Studies. (1991). Local government and planning for a democratic South Africa. Cape Town: University of the Western Cape.Google Scholar
  41. Conference: Developing Civic Unity. (1991, May 10). Political perspective: National consultative conference. South African History Archive (SAHA): UDF Collection AL2431.Google Scholar
  42. Constitutional Assembly, Theme Committee 1 (CA TC1). (1995, February 28). Theme Committee 1: Supplementary report to amended report from Theme Committee 1. Constitutional Courts Archives: CALS Collection, 7.3.1. Constitutional Assembly—Constitutional Committee.Google Scholar
  43. Collinge, J. (1991, May). Civics: Local government from below. Work in Progress, 74‚ 8–10.Google Scholar
  44. Coovadia, C. (1991). The role of the civic movement. In M. Swilling, R. Humphries, & K. Shubane (Eds.), Apartheid city in transition. Cape Town: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Coovadia, C. (n.d.). Local government and the role of the civic movement. SAHA: UDF Collection AL2431.Google Scholar
  46. Cornwall, A., & Coelho, V. S. (2007). Spaces for change? The politics of citizen participation in new democratic arenas. London and New York: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  47. Cornwall, A. (2008, June). Unpacking ‘participation’: Models, meanings and practices. Community Development Journal, 3, 269–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Cullinan, K. (1992, June). The fight for local control (Reconstruct No. 3).Work in Progress, 82, 5–7.Google Scholar
  49. Davis, D. M. (2003). Constitutional borrowing: The influence of legal cultures and local history in the reconstitution of comparative influence—The South African experience. International Journal of Constitutional Law, 1(2), 186–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Dubow, S. (2012). South Africa’s struggle for human rights: A Jacana pocket history. Johannesburg: Jacana Media.Google Scholar
  51. Esterhuyse, W. (2014). Endgame: Secret talks and the end of apartheid. Cape Town: Tafelberg.Google Scholar
  52. Glaser, D. (1997, March). South Africa and the limits of civil society. Journal of Southern African Studies, 23(1), 5–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Jacobs, B. (1992, December). ‘Heading for disaster?’, Focus: Sanco: Work in Progress.Google Scholar
  54. Jordan, P. (1985, July 26). Briefing paper. Lusaka. UFH NAHECS: Oliver Tambo Papers, Department of Legal and Constitutional Affairs, Constitutional Committee minutes/reports.Google Scholar
  55. Kaufman, A. (1968). The radical liberal. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  56. Lowe, S. (1986). Urban social movements: The city after Castells. London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Macmillan, H. (2016). Jack Simons: Teacher, scholar, comrade. Johannesburg: Jacana.Google Scholar
  58. Mansbridge, J. (1983). Beyond adversary democracy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  59. Marais, H. (1992, June). Regional debate rages on (Reconstruct No. 3). Work in Progress, 82, 4–5.Google Scholar
  60. Mayibuye. (1992, February). Guaranteeing human rights, pp. 20–21.Google Scholar
  61. McGee, R. (2002). Participatory development. In U. Kothari & M. Minogue (Eds.), Development theory and practice: Critical perspectives (pp. 92–116). Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. MDM. (1990, June 2). Development principles of the Mass Democratic Movement. Interim Development Forum workshop. SAHA: UDF Collection AL2431.Google Scholar
  63. Ngcobo, E. (1993, November). LGNF off to a false start. Work in Progress: Reconstruct.Google Scholar
  64. Olver, C. (1991). Rural local government in South Africa. National consultative conference on local government and planning, 4–7 October 1990, Johannesburg. In Local government and planning for a democratic South Africa. Cape Town: Centre for Development Studies, University of the Western Cape.Google Scholar
  65. Ottaway, M. (1993). South Africa: The struggle for a new order. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
  66. Pateman, C. (1970). Participation and democratic theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Republic of South Africa (RSA). (1993). Local Government Transition Act, 1993 [No. 209 of 1993]. http://www.saflii.org/za/legis/num_act/lgta1993311/.
  68. Republic of South Africa (RSA). (1996). Constitution of the Republic of South Africa. http://www.info.gov.za/documents/constitution/index.htm.
  69. Sachs, A. (1988, March 1). Towards a bill of rights in a democratic South Africa (Draft Discussion Paper). Historical Papers Research Archive, University of the Witwatersrand, Collection AG2510.Google Scholar
  70. Siddle, A., & Koelble, T. A. (2012). The failure of decentralisation in South African local government: Complexity and unanticipated consequences. Cape Town: UCT Press.Google Scholar
  71. Simons, J. (1986, February 12). Response of the NWC (07.02.1986) to the report of the Constitution Committee (14.01.1986) on the Freedom Charter and the Constitution. Note to the Constitution Committee from Jack Simons. UFH NAHECS: Oliver Tambo Papers, Department of Legal and Constitutional Affairs, Constitutional Committee, correspondence.Google Scholar
  72. Skweyiya, Z. (1991). Regional and local government beyond apartheid. In Local government and planning for a democratic South Africa. Cape Town: Centre for Development Studies, University of the Western Cape.Google Scholar
  73. Strand, P. (2001). Finalizing the South African constitution: The politics of the constitutional assembly. Politikon, 28(1), 47–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Swilling, M., & Boya, L. (1997). Local governance in transition. In P. Fitzgerald, A. McLennan, & B. Munslow (Eds.), Managing sustainable development in South Africa (Chapter 7). Cape Town: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  75. Tambo, O. R. (1986, January 9). Press statement, Lusaka. UFH NAHECS: Oliver Tambo Papers.Google Scholar
  76. UDF. (1989). AGM held on 2–3 December 1989: Report from commission on constitutional guidelines. SAHA: UDF Collection AL2431, UDF W/Cape, Annual General Meeting.Google Scholar
  77. UDF. (1990). Discussion paper from the UDF—Towards understanding the current political conditions: Implications for the civic movement. SAHA: UDF Collection AL2431.Google Scholar
  78. UDF. (1991, March 1–3). Paper on National Civic Movement delivered at UDF National General Congress. SAHA: UDF Collection AL2431.Google Scholar
  79. UDF—Border. (1991, January 15). Border Civics Congress, UDF and ANC memorandum on restructuring local government in the Republic of Ciskei, to be presented to the Ciskei Military Council. SAHA: UDF Collection AL2431.Google Scholar
  80. van Donk, M., & Pieterse, E. (2006). Reflections on the design of a post-apartheid system of local government. In U. Pillay, R. Tomlinson, & J. Du Toit (Eds.), Democracy and delivery: Urban policy in South Africa (pp. 107–134). Pretoria: HSRC.Google Scholar

Interviews

  1. Botha, T.—Centurion, 14 April 2014.Google Scholar
  2. Cheadle, H.—Email correspondence, February 2006.Google Scholar
  3. Coleman, N.—Cape Town, 20 February 2013.Google Scholar
  4. Coovadia, C.—28 May 2013.Google Scholar
  5. Jobodwana, Z. N.—Pretoria, 25 January 2006.Google Scholar
  6. Jordan, P.—Cape Town, 12 November 2013.Google Scholar
  7. Mabandla, B.—Johannesburg, 28 June 2013.Google Scholar
  8. Mashatile, P.—Cape Town, 21 February 2013.Google Scholar
  9. Moosa, M. V.—Johannesburg, 30 April 2013.Google Scholar
  10. Mufamadi, S.—Soweto, 26 November 2012.Google Scholar
  11. Netshitenzhe, J.—Johannesburg, 14 May 2013.Google Scholar
  12. Sachs, A.—Johannesburg, 21 December 2005.Google Scholar
  13. Seedat, R. (interview-a)—Johannesburg, 13 May 2013.Google Scholar
  14. Seedat, R. (interview-b)—Johannesburg, 20 May 2013.Google Scholar
  15. Swilling, M.—Stellenbosch, 20 February 2013.Google Scholar
  16. Tsenoli, L.—Johannesburg, 11 March 2013.Google Scholar
  17. Wooldridge, D.—Johannesburg, 12 March 2013.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heidi Brooks
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Political and International StudiesIIE MSAJohannesburgSouth Africa
  2. 2.Centre for Social ChangeUniversity of JohannesburgJohannesburgSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations