Post-PCI OCT Findings and the Clinical Significance

  • Taishi Yonetsu


Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been utilized in the catheterization laboratories as an adjunctive tool to guide percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedure. Given the excellent spatial resolution, OCT is capable of the detailed assessment of post-stent findings such as stent expansion, apposition of strut, stent edge dissection, or tissue protrusion into the stent. However, clinical implications of those OCT findings have not been elucidated because of the insufficiency of the evidence relevant to clinical outcomes. This chapter sought to summarize the existing studies investigating the impact of post-PCI findings on subsequent clinical outcomes and to explore potential OCT-derived end-points for successful PCI.


Stent restenosis Stent edge dissection Minimal lumen area stent malapposition in-stent protrusion 


  1. 1.
    Bouma BE, Tearney GJ, Yabushita H, Shishkov M, Kauffman CR, DeJoseph GD, MacNeill BD, Houser SL, Aretz HT, Halpern EF, Jang IK. Evaluation of intracoronary stenting by intravascular optical coherence tomography. Heart. 2003;89:317–20.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Maehara A, Ben-Yehuda O, Ali Z, Wijns W, Bezerra HG, Shite J, Genereux P, Nichols M, Jenkins P, Witzenbichler B, Mintz GS, Stone GW. Comparison of stent expansion guided by optical coherence tomography versus intravascular ultrasound: the ILUMIEN II study (observational study of optical coherence tomography [OCT] in patients undergoing fractional flow reserve [FFR] and percutaneous coronary intervention). JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2015;8:1704–14.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wijns W, Shite J, Jones MR, Lee SW, Price MJ, Fabbiocchi F, Barbato E, Akasaka T, Bezerra H, Holmes D. Optical coherence tomography imaging during percutaneous coronary intervention impacts physician decision-making: ILUMIEN I study. Eur Heart J. 2015;36:3346–55.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    de Jaegere P, Mudra H, Figulla H, Almagor Y, Doucet S, Penn I, Colombo A, Hamm C, Bartorelli A, Rothman M, Nobuyoshi M, Yamaguchi T, Voudris V, DiMario C, Makovski S, Hausmann D, Rowe S, Rabinovich S, Sunamura M, van Es GA. Intravascular ultrasound-guided optimized stent deployment. Immediate and 6 months clinical and angiographic results from the multicenter ultrasound stenting in coronaries study (music study). Eur Heart J. 1998;19:1214–23.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Doi H, Maehara A, Mintz GS, Yu A, Wang H, Mandinov L, Popma JJ, Ellis SG, Grube E, Dawkins KD, Weissman NJ, Turco MA, Ormiston JA, Stone GW. Impact of post-intervention minimal stent area on 9-month follow-up patency of paclitaxel-eluting stents: an integrated intravascular ultrasound analysis from the TAXUS IV, V, and VI and TAXUS ATLAS workhorse, long lesion, and direct stent trials. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2009;2:1269–75.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Oemrawsingh PV, Mintz GS, Schalij MJ, Zwinderman AH, Jukema JW, van der Wall EE, TULIP Study. Thrombocyte activity evaluation and effects of Ultrasound guidance in Long Intracoronary stent Placement. Intravascular ultrasound guidance improves angiographic and clinical outcome of stent implantation for long coronary artery stenoses: final results of a randomized comparison with angiographic guidance (tulip study). Circulation. 2003;107:62–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Schiele F, Meneveau N, Gilard M, Boschat J, Commeau P, Ming LP, Sewoke P, Seronde MF, Mercier M, Gupta S, Bassand JP, Balloon Equivalent to Stent Study. Intravascular ultrasound-guided balloon angioplasty compared with stent: immediate and 6-month results of the multicenter, randomized balloon equivalent to stent study (best). Circulation. 2003;107:545–51.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schiele F, Meneveau N, Vuillemenot A, Zhang DD, Gupta S, Mercier M, Danchin N, Bertrand B, Bassand JP. Impact of intravascular ultrasound guidance in stent deployment on 6-month restenosis rate: a multicenter, randomized study comparing two strategies—with and without intravascular ultrasound guidance. Resist study group. Restenosis after Ivus guided stenting. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1998;32:320–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Serruys PW, Kay IP, Disco C, Deshpande NV, de Feyter PJ. Periprocedural quantitative coronary angiography after Palmaz-Schatz stent implantation predicts the restenosis rate at six months: results of a meta-analysis of the Belgian Netherlands Stent Study (BENESTENT) I, BENESTENT II Pilot, BENESTENT II and music trials. Multicenter ultrasound stent in coronaries. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999;34:1067–74.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ziada KM, Kapadia SR, Belli G, Houghtaling PL, De Franco AC, Ellis SG, Whitlow PL, Franco I, Nissen SE, Tuzcu EM. Prognostic value of absolute versus relative measures of the procedural result after successful coronary stenting: importance of vessel size in predicting long-term freedom from target vessel revascularization. Am Heart J. 2001;141:823–31.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sonoda S, Morino Y, Ako J, Terashima M, Hassan AH, Bonneau HN, Leon MB, Moses JW, Yock PG, Honda Y, Kuntz RE, Fitzgerald PJ, Investigators S. Impact of final stent dimensions on long-term results following sirolimus-eluting stent implantation: serial intravascular ultrasound analysis from the sirius trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;43:1959–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fujii K, Carlier SG, Mintz GS, Yang YM, Moussa I, Weisz G, Dangas G, Mehran R, Lansky AJ, Kreps EM, Collins M, Stone GW, Moses JW, Leon MB. Stent underexpansion and residual reference segment stenosis are related to stent thrombosis after sirolimus-eluting stent implantation: an intravascular ultrasound study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;45:995–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Uren NG, Schwarzacher SP, Metz JA, Lee DP, Honda Y, Yeung AC, Fitzgerald PJ, Yock PG, Investigators PR. Predictors and outcomes of stent thrombosis: an intravascular ultrasound registry. Eur Heart J. 2002;23:124–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cheneau E, Leborgne L, Mintz GS, Kotani J, Pichard AD, Satler LF, Canos D, Castagna M, Weissman NJ, Waksman R. Predictors of subacute stent thrombosis: results of a systematic intravascular ultrasound study. Circulation. 2003;108:43–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ali ZA, Maehara A, Genereux P, Shlofmitz RA, Fabbiocchi F, Nazif TM, Guagliumi G, Meraj PM, Alfonso F, Samady H, Akasaka T, Carlson EB, Leesar MA, Matsumura M, Ozan MO, Mintz GS, Ben-Yehuda O, Stone GW, Investigators IIOP. Optical coherence tomography compared with intravascular ultrasound and with angiography to guide coronary stent implantation (ILUMIEN III: OPTIMIZE PCI): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2016;388:2618–28.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Usui E, Yonetsu T, Kanaji Y, Hoshino M, Yamaguchi M, Hada M, Hamaya R, Kanno Y, Murai T, Lee T, Kakuta T. Efficacy of optical coherence tomography-derived morphometric assessment in predicting the physiological significance of coronary stenosis: head-to-head comparison with intravascular ultrasound. EuroIntervention. 2018;13:e2210–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Prati F, Romagnoli E, Burzotta F, Limbruno U, Gatto L, La Manna A, Versaci F, Marco V, Di Vito L, Imola F, Paoletti G, Trani C, Tamburino C, Tavazzi L, Mintz GS. Clinical impact of OCT findings during PCI: the CLI-OPCI II study. J Am Coll Cardiol Img. 2015;8:1297–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Prati F, Romagnoli E, La Manna A, Burzotta F, Gatto L, Marco V, Fineschi M, Fabbiocchi F, Versaci F, Trani C, Tamburino C, Alfonso F, Mintz GS. Long-term consequences of optical coherence tomography findings during percutaneous coronary intervention: the centro per la lotta contro l’infarto - optimization of percutaneous coronary intervention (CLI-OPCI) late study. EuroIntervention. 2018;14:e443–51.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Soeda T, Uemura S, Park SJ, Jang Y, Lee S, Cho JM, Kim SJ, Vergallo R, Minami Y, Ong DS, Gao L, Lee H, Zhang S, Yu B, Saito Y, Jang IK. Incidence and clinical significance of poststent optical coherence tomography findings: one-year follow-up study from a multicenter registry. Circulation. 2015;132:1020–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kume T, Okura H, Miyamoto Y, Yamada R, Saito K, Tamada T, Koyama T, Neishi Y, Hayashida A, Kawamoto T, Yoshida K. Natural history of stent edge dissection, tissue protrusion and incomplete stent apposition detectable only on optical coherence tomography after stent implantation - preliminary observation. Circ J. 2012;76:698–703.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chamie D, Bezerra HG, Attizzani GF, Yamamoto H, Kanaya T, Stefano GT, Fujino Y, Mehanna E, Wang W, Abdul-Aziz A, Dias M, Simon DI, Costa MA. Incidence, predictors, morphological characteristics, and clinical outcomes of stent edge dissections detected by optical coherence tomography. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2013;6:800–13.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zeglin-Sawczuk M, Jang IK, Kato K, Yonetsu T, Kim S, Choi SY, Kratlian C, Lee H, Dauerman HL. Lipid rich plaque, female gender and proximal coronary stent edge dissections. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2013;36:507–13.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bouki KP, Sakkali E, Toutouzas K, Vlad D, Barmperis D, Phychari S, Riga M, Apostolou T, Stefanadis C. Impact of coronary artery stent edge dissections on long-term clinical outcome in patients with acute coronary syndrome: an optical coherence tomography study. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2015;86:237–46.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    De Cock D, Bennett J, Ughi GJ, Dubois C, Sinnaeve P, Dhooge J, Desmet W, Belmans A, Adriaenssens T. Healing course of acute vessel wall injury after drug-eluting stent implantation assessed by optical coherence tomography. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2014;15:800–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kubo T, Imanishi T, Kitabata H, Kuroi A, Ueno S, Yamano T, Tanimoto T, Matsuo Y, Masho T, Takarada S, Tanaka A, Nakamura N, Mizukoshi M, Tomobuchi Y, Akasaka T. Comparison of vascular response after sirolimus-eluting stent implantation between patients with unstable and stable angina pectoris: a serial optical coherence tomography study. J Am Coll Cardiol Img. 2008;1:475–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kawamori H, Shite J, Shinke T, Otake H, Matsumoto D, Nakagawa M, Nagoshi R, Kozuki A, Hariki H, Inoue T, Osue T, Taniguchi Y, Nishio R, Hiranuma N, Hirata K. Natural consequence of post-intervention stent malapposition, thrombus, tissue prolapse, and dissection assessed by optical coherence tomography at mid-term follow-up. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2013;14:865–75.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ino Y, Kubo T, Matsuo Y, Yamaguchi T, Shiono Y, Shimamura K, Katayama Y, Nakamura T, Aoki H, Taruya A, Nishiguchi T, Satogami K, Yamano T, Kameyama T, Orii M, Ota S, Kuroi A, Kitabata H, Tanaka A, Hozumi T, Akasaka T. Optical coherence tomography predictors for edge restenosis after everolimus-eluting stent implantation. Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2016;9:e004231.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tanigawa J, Barlis P, Di Mario C. Intravascular optical coherence tomography: optimisation of image acquisition and quantitative assessment of stent strut apposition. EuroIntervention. 2007;3:128–36.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tanigawa J, Barlis P, Di Mario C. Do unapposed stent struts endothelialise? In vivo demonstration with optical coherence tomography. Heart. 2007;93:378.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gutierrez-Chico JL, Regar E, Nuesch E, Okamura T, Wykrzykowska J, di Mario C, Windecker S, van Es GA, Gobbens P, Juni P, Serruys PW. Delayed coverage in malapposed and side-branch struts with respect to well-apposed struts in drug-eluting stents: in vivo assessment with optical coherence tomography. Circulation. 2011;124:612–23.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ozaki Y, Okumura M, Ismail TF, Naruse H, Hattori K, Kan S, Ishikawa M, Kawai T, Takagi Y, Ishii J, Prati F, Serruys PW. The fate of incomplete stent apposition with drug-eluting stents: an optical coherence tomography-based natural history study. Eur Heart J. 2010;31:1470–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bezerra HG, Costa MA, Guagliumi G, Rollins AM, Simon DI. Intracoronary optical coherence tomography: a comprehensive review clinical and research applications. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2009;2:1035–46.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ishigami K, Uemura S, Morikawa Y, Soeda T, Okayama S, Nishida T, Takemoto Y, Onoue K, Somekawa S, Takeda Y, Kawata H, Horii M, Saito Y. Long-term follow-up of neointimal coverage of sirolimus-eluting stents—evaluation with optical coherence tomography. Circ J. 2009;73:2300–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Baumbach A, Lansky AJ, Onuma Y, Asano T, Johnson T, Anderson R, Kiemeneij F, Zheng M, Van Royen N, Slagboom T, Vlachojannis G, Xu B, Serruys PW, Wijns W. Optical coherence tomography substudy of a prospective multicentre randomised post-market trial to assess the safety and effectiveness of the firehawk cobalt-chromium coronary stent (rapamycin target-eluting) system for the treatment of atherosclerotic lesions: target all comers. EuroIntervention. 2018;14:1121–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kim JS, Jang IK, Kim JS, Kim TH, Takano M, Kume T, Hur NW, Ko YG, Choi D, Hong MK, Jang Y. Optical coherence tomography evaluation of zotarolimus-eluting stents at 9-month follow-up: comparison with sirolimus-eluting stents. Heart. 2009;95:1907–12.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Iannaccone M, D’Ascenzo F, Templin C, Omede P, Montefusco A, Guagliumi G, Serruys PW, Di Mario C, Kochman J, Quadri G, Biondi-Zoccai G, Luscher TF, Moretti C, D’Amico M, Gaita F, Stone GW. Optical coherence tomography evaluation of intermediate-term healing of different stent types: systemic review and meta-analysis. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2017;18:159–66.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Toledano Delgado FJ, Alvarez-Ossorio MP, de Lezo Cruz-Conde JS, Bellido FM, Romero Moreno MA, Fernandez-Aceytuno AM, de Lezo Herrerosde Tejada JS, Pineda SO, Saint-Gerons JM, Pavlovic D. Optical coherence tomography evaluation of late strut coverage patterns between first-generation drug-eluting stents and everolimus-eluting stent. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2014;84:720–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Siqueira DA, Abizaid AA, Costa Jde R, Feres F, Mattos LA, Staico R, Abizaid AA, Tanajura LF, Chaves A, Centemero M, Sousa AG, Sousa JE. Late incomplete apposition after drug-eluting stent implantation: incidence and potential for adverse clinical outcomes. Eur Heart J. 2007;28:1304–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ako J, Morino Y, Honda Y, Hassan A, Sonoda S, Yock PG, Leon MB, Moses JW, Bonneau HN, Fitzgerald PJ. Late incomplete stent apposition after sirolimus-eluting stent implantation: a serial intravascular ultrasound analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;46:1002–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Romagnoli E, Gatto L, La Manna A, Burzotta F, Taglieri N, Saia F, Amico F, Marco V, Ramazzotti V, Di Giorgio A, Di Vito L, Boi A, Contarini M, Castriota F, Mintz GS, Prati F. Role of residual acute stent malapposition in percutaneous coronary interventions. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2017;90:566–75.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Im E, Kim BK, Ko YG, Shin DH, Kim JS, Choi D, Jang Y, Hong MK. Incidences, predictors, and clinical outcomes of acute and late stent malapposition detected by optical coherence tomography after drug-eluting stent implantation. Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2014;7:88–96.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gutierrez-Chico JL, Wykrzykowska J, Nuesch E, van Geuns RJ, Koch KT, Koolen JJ, di Mario C, Windecker S, van Es GA, Gobbens P, Juni P, Regar E, Serruys PW. Vascular tissue reaction to acute malapposition in human coronary arteries: sequential assessment with optical coherence tomography. Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2012;5:20–9, S21-28PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Inoue T, Shinke T, Otake H, Nakagawa M, Hariki H, Osue T, Iwasaki M, Taniguchi Y, Nishio R, Hiranuma N, Konishi A, Kinutani H, Kuroda M, Hirata K. Impact of strut-vessel distance and underlying plaque type on the resolution of acute strut malapposition: serial optimal coherence tomography analysis after everolimus-eluting stent implantation. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2014;30:857–65.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Guagliumi G, Sirbu V, Musumeci G, Gerber R, Biondi-Zoccai G, Ikejima H, Ladich E, Lortkipanidze N, Matiashvili A, Valsecchi O, Virmani R, Stone GW. Examination of the in vivo mechanisms of late drug-eluting stent thrombosis: findings from optical coherence tomography and intravascular ultrasound imaging. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2012;5:12–20.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Taniwaki M, Radu MD, Zaugg S, Amabile N, Garcia-Garcia HM, Yamaji K, Jorgensen E, Kelbaek H, Pilgrim T, Caussin C, Zanchin T, Veugeois A, Abildgaard U, Juni P, Cook S, Koskinas KC, Windecker S, Raber L. Mechanisms of very late drug-eluting stent thrombosis assessed by optical coherence tomography. Circulation. 2016;133:650–60.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Souteyrand G, Amabile N, Mangin L, Chabin X, Meneveau N, Cayla G, Vanzetto G, Barnay P, Trouillet C, Rioufol G, Range G, Teiger E, Delaunay R, Dubreuil O, Lhermusier T, Mulliez A, Levesque S, Belle L, Caussin C, Motreff P, Investigators P. Mechanisms of stent thrombosis analysed by optical coherence tomography: insights from the national pesto French registry. Eur Heart J. 2016;37:1208–16.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Joner M, Koppara T, Byrne RA, Castellanos MI, Lewerich J, Novotny J, Guagliumi G, Xhepa E, Adriaenssens T, Godschalk TC, Malik N, Alfonso F, Tada T, Neumann FJ, Desmet W, Ten Berg JM, Gershlick AH, Feldman LJ, Massberg S, Kastrati A, Prevention of PRESTIGE Investigators. Neoatherosclerosis in patients with coronary stent thrombosis: findings from optical coherence tomography imaging (a report of the prestige consortium). JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2018;11:1340–50.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Sethi A, Singbal Y, Rastogi U, Prasad VS. Late incomplete stent apposition is associated with late/very late stent thrombosis: a meta-analysis. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2018;91:365–75.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Prati F, Romagnoli E, Gatto L, La Manna A, Burzotta F, Limbruno U, Versaci F, Fabbiocchi F, Di Giorgio A, Marco V, Ramazzotti V, Di Vito L, Trani C, Porto I, Boi A, Tavazzi L, Mintz GS. Clinical impact of suboptimal stenting and residual intrastent plaque/thrombus protrusion in patients with acute coronary syndrome: the cli-opci acs substudy (centro per la lotta contro l’infarto-optimization of percutaneous coronary intervention in acute coronary syndrome). Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2016;9:e003726.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Sugiyama T, Kimura S, Akiyama D, Hishikari K, Kawaguchi N, Kamiishi T, Hikita H, Takahashi A, Isobe M. Quantitative assessment of tissue prolapse on optical coherence tomography and its relation to underlying plaque morphologies and clinical outcome in patients with elective stent implantation. Int J Cardiol. 2014;176:182–90.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bryniarski KL, Tahk SJ, Choi SY, Soeda T, Higuma T, Yamamoto E, Xing L, Dai J, Zanchin T, Lee H, Jang IK. Clinical, angiographic, IVUS, and OCT predictors for irregular protrusion after coronary stenting. EuroIntervention. 2017;12:e2204–11.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Otake H, Kubo T, Takahashi H, Shinke T, Okamura T, Hibi K, Nakazawa G, Morino Y, Shite J, Fusazaki T, Kozuma K, Ioji T, Kaneda H, Akasaka T, Investigators O. Optical frequency domain imaging versus intravascular ultrasound in percutaneous coronary intervention (opinion trial): results from the opinion imaging study. J Am Coll Cardiol Img. 2018;11:111–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Abtahian F, Yonetsu T, Vergallo R, Jia H, Kato K, Tian J, Hu S, McNulty I, Jang IK. Ticagrelor immediately prior to stenting is associated with smaller residual thrombus in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Int J Cardiol. 2013;168:3099–101.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kubo T, Ino Y, Matsuo Y, Shiono Y, Kameyama T, Yamano T, Katayama Y, Taruya A, Nishiguchi T, Satogami K, Kashiyama K, Orii M, Kuroi A, Yamaguchi T, Tanaka A, Hozumi T, Akasaka T. Reduction of in-stent thrombus immediately after percutaneous coronary intervention by pretreatment with prasugrel compared with clopidogrel: an optical coherence tomography study. J Cardiol. 2017;69:436–41.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Katayama Y, Kubo T, Ino Y, Kameyama T, Matsuo Y, Kitabata H, Terada K, Emori H, Aoki H, Taruya A, Shimamura K, Ota S, Tanaka A, Hozumi T, Akasaka T. The relationship between timing of prasugrel pretreatment and in-stent thrombus immediately after percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary syndrome: an optical coherence tomography study. Heart Vessel. 2018;33:1159–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Taishi Yonetsu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Interventional CardiologyTokyo Medical and Dental UniversityTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations