Advertisement

Free Patriotic Movement Mobilization Keeps the Flame Burning (1991–2005)

  • Joseph P. Helou
Chapter
Part of the Reform and Transition in the Mediterranean book series (RTM)

Abstract

This chapter explains how the FPM mobilized for activism throughout the period 1990–2005 despite the challenges it faced. The analysis considers the previously unexamined accounts of FPM activists who structured their activism according to small, loosely connected and decentralized cells, while maintaining only a political affiliation with the central FPM command in Lebanon and with FPM groups abroad for the distribution of news in the media. It also discusses several tactics that FPM activists adopted to incentivize other members to invest time and effort in activism. Here, too, the role of Michel Aoun’s ideas and the means of channeling those ideas in various media forms helped keep movement activism burning, even though large-scale gatherings were not always a feasible course of action.

References

  1. Abi Antoun, N. Interview by this author. 2014. Beirut, September 23.Google Scholar
  2. Abi Nader, W. Interview by this author. 2014. Jounieh, October 15.Google Scholar
  3. Abi Ramia, S. Interview by this author. 2014. Beirut, November 21.Google Scholar
  4. Abs, Z. Interview by this author. 2014. Beirut, October 31.Google Scholar
  5. Achkar, W. Interview by this author. 2014. Jounieh, October 15.Google Scholar
  6. Amnesty International. 1993. “Legal Concern/Fear of Torture.” Amnesty International Report, January 14, MDE 18/01/93 ed.Google Scholar
  7. ———. 2000. “Use of Military Court Against Student Demonstrators a Violation of Rights.” Public Statement, April 25.Google Scholar
  8. Annahar. 1994. “Mawkoufu AlTayyar AlWattani Ouhilu `ala Al`askariya. ‘The Patriotic Movement Detainees Were Transferred to the Military’.” Annahar, September 28, 18945 ed.: 5.Google Scholar
  9. ———. 1995. “Almounasekiyya Alaama Lilmouta`amar Alwatani Nazeh Assilah Alfalastini Niha`iyan. ‘General Coordination for the National Conference Destroying Palestinian Arms Permanently’.” Annahar, September 27, 19247 ed.: 6.Google Scholar
  10. ———. 1995. “Aoun: Itha Sharaka Altayyar Alwatani FilSouta Sayounathef Albikaa min Almoukhayyamat Alirhabiyya. ‘Aoun: If the Patriotic Movement Participates in Government It Will Clean the Bikaa from the Terrorist Camps’.” Annahar, September 9, 19232 ed.: 4.Google Scholar
  11. ———. 1996. “Takhleyat Khair waKhamsa Akhareen wa Istimrar AlTahkeek FiMalaf AlTa`aamol. ‘Releasing Khair and Five Others and Continuing the Investigation into the Collaboration Dossier’.” Annahar, December 31, 19633 ed.: 7.Google Scholar
  12. ———. 1997. “Daawat Aoun Tahawoulon Jathri Fi AlCongress AlAmeriki. ‘The Invitation of Aoun Radical Transformation in American Congress’.” Annahar, June 26, 19777 ed.: 6.Google Scholar
  13. ———. 1998. “Aoun Yad`ou AlBatrouniyeen Ila MouWajahat AlIktaa AlSiyassi Wal Malli. ‘Aoun Calls on the Batrounees to Confront Political and Monetary Feudalism’.” Annahar, April 7, 20017 ed.: 4.Google Scholar
  14. ———. 1998. “Aoun Yaroudu aala AlQa`ileen biKhisaratihi Yatamanoun Nihayatana wa Yakhdaoun Anfousahum. ‘Aoun Responds to Those Who Claim His Loss They Wish for Our End and Trick Themselves’.” Annahar, June 13, 20069 ed.: 4.Google Scholar
  15. ———. 1998. “Mouassasatan liHoukouk AlInsan Tastankiran AlIstid`aat. ‘The Institutions of Human Rights Condemns the Detainments’.” Annahar, September 25, 20158 ed.: 6.Google Scholar
  16. ———. 2000. “Toulab AlTayyar AlWattani AlHurr Waza`ou bayanat Tahtafel bi Zawal AlIhtilal. ‘The Students of the Free Patriotic Movement Distributed Communiqués in Celebration of the Demise of Occupation’.” Annahar, May 9, 20644 ed.: 23.Google Scholar
  17. ———. 2001. “AlTayyar AlWattani Tahadatha `an I`tiqalat li Anssarih. ‘The Patriotic Movement Spoke of Detainment of Supporters’.” Annahar, June 5, 20967 ed.: 19.Google Scholar
  18. Aoun, A. Interview by this author. 2014. Beirut, March 12.Google Scholar
  19. Aoun, N. Interview by this author. 2014. Awkar, September 18.Google Scholar
  20. Assaf, Z. 1997. “Raddan Aala AlDaawa Ila Iskat AlHoudoud. ‘Responding to the Calls of Dropping Borders’.” Annahar, August 23, 19828 ed.: 4.Google Scholar
  21. Assouad, Z. Interview by this author. 2014. Jounieh, October 10.Google Scholar
  22. Atallah, P. 1996. “Almou’tamar Alwatani Alloubnani FiBarees Ikhtatama Youmein min Aljalasat. ‘The Lebanese National Conference from Paris Concluded Two Days of Sessions’.” Annahar, February 19, 19368 ed.: 4.Google Scholar
  23. Azzam, P. Interview by this author. 2014. Beirut, October 9.Google Scholar
  24. Barada. 2001. “Fi Taharoukin Houwa AlAkbar li Mouwajahat Damj Fourou` AlJami`a AlLoubnaniyya. ‘In the Largest Move to Confront the Merger of the Branches of the Lebanese University’.” Annahar, June 7, 20969 ed.: 17.Google Scholar
  25. Blumer, H. 1957. “Collective Behavior.” In Review of Sociology: Analysis of a Decade, edited by J. B. Gittler, 127–158. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  26. Calhoun, C. 1997. Neither Gods Nor Emperors: Students and the Struggle for Democracy in China. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  27. Chakour, L. Interview by this author. 2014. Jbeil, September 29.Google Scholar
  28. Chamoun, M. Interview by this author. 2014. Beirut, October 15.Google Scholar
  29. Chlela, R. Interview by this author. 2014. Jounieh, October 29.Google Scholar
  30. Choucair, G. Interview by this author. 2014. Beirut, October 16.Google Scholar
  31. Dabbous, D. 2013. Regulating Lebanese Broadcasting: A Policy Analysis. Saarbrücken: Lambert Academic Publishing.Google Scholar
  32. Dabbous, Y. 2010. “Media with a Mission: Why Fairness and Balance Are Not Priorities in Lebanon’s Journalistic Codes.” International Journal of Communications 4: 719–737.Google Scholar
  33. ———. 2012. “Teaching Investigative Journalism in the Arab States.” Policy Brief, Beirut: Workshop: UNESCO Investigative Journalism at Lebanese American University.Google Scholar
  34. Dajani, N. 1992. Disoriented Media in a Fragmented Society: The Lebanese Experience. Beirut: American University of Beirut.Google Scholar
  35. ———. 2005. “The Re-feudalization of the Public Sphere: Lebanese Television News Coverage and the Lebanese Political Process.” New Media, International Conference for Contemporary Middle East Studies. Denmark: University of Southern Denmark.Google Scholar
  36. Elefteriades, M. Interview by this author. 2014. Beirut, September 8.Google Scholar
  37. ElKhoury, P. Interview by this author. 2014. Dbayeh, October 1.Google Scholar
  38. ElKhoury, R. Interview by this author. 2014. Jounieh, September 26.Google Scholar
  39. Fadel, M. Interview by this author. 2014. Dekwaneh, November 20.Google Scholar
  40. Fireman, B., and W. Gamson. 1979. “Utilitarian Logic in the Resource Mobilization Perspective.” In The Dynamics of Social Movements, edited by M. N. Zald and J. D. McCarthy, 8–44. Cambridge: Winthrop.Google Scholar
  41. Freeman, J. 1975. The Politics of Women’s Liberation: A Case Study of an Emerging Social Movement and Its Relation to the Policy Process. New York: Longman, Inc.Google Scholar
  42. Gambill, G. C. 2003. “FNC Triumphs in Baabda-Aley.” Middle East Forum and United States Committee for a Free Lebanon 5 (8–9).Google Scholar
  43. Gamson, W. 1975. The Strategy of Social Protest. Homewood, IL: Dorsey.Google Scholar
  44. Goffman, E. 1974. Frame Analysis. Boston: Northeastern University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Hadad, G. Interview by this author. 2014. Hadath, September 17.Google Scholar
  46. Hafez, M. M. 2003. Why Muslims Rebel: Repression and Resistance in the Islamic World. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
  47. Hanna, E. Interview by this author. 2014. Rabieh, October 16.Google Scholar
  48. Harb, T. Interview by this author. 2014. Beirut, October 30.Google Scholar
  49. Harris, W. A. 1997. Faces of Lebanon: Sects, Wars, and Global Extensions. Princeton, NJ: Marcus Wiener Publishers.Google Scholar
  50. Helou, J. P. 2015. “Policy Overcomes Confessional Hurdles: A Policy Strategy Tackles Challenges in the Segmented Society and State of Lebanon.” Athens Journal of Mediterranean Studies 1 (4): 325–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hirsch, E. L. 1986. “The Creation of Political Solidarity in Social Movement Organizations.” The Sociological Quarterly 27 (3): 373–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. ———. 1990. “Sacrifice for the Cause: Group Processes, Recruitment, and Commitment in Student Social Movement.” American Sociological Review 55: 243–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hobeika, T. Interview by this author. 2014. Dbayeh, October 17.Google Scholar
  54. Hottinger, A. 1961. “Zu’ama’ and Parties in the Lebanese Crisis of 1958.” Middle East Journal 15 (2): 127–140.Google Scholar
  55. Johnson, M. 1986. Class and Client in Beirut: The Sunni Muslim Community and the Lebanese State 1840–1985. London: Ithaca Press.Google Scholar
  56. Kanj, R. Interview by this author. 2014. Beirut, September 19.Google Scholar
  57. Khalaf, S. 1968. “Primordial Ties and Politics in Lebanon.” Middle Eastern Studies 4 (3): 243–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. ———. 2003. “On Roots and Roots: the Reassertion of Primordial Loyalties.” In Lebanon in Limbo: Postwar Society and State in an Uncertain Regional Environment, edited by T. Hanf and N. Salam, Chap. 6. Baden-Baden: Nomos.Google Scholar
  59. Kraidy, M. 1998. “Broadcasting Regulation and Civil Society in Postwar Lebanon.” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 42: 387–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Maasri, Z. 2009. Off the Wall. London: I.B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  61. McAdam, D. 1988. Freedom Summer. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  62. McCarthy, J. D., and M. N. Zald. 1973. The Trend of Social Movements in America: Professionalization and Resource Mobilization. Morristown, NJ: General Learning.Google Scholar
  63. ———. 1977. “Resource Mobilization and Social Movements: A Partial Theory.” American Journal of Sociology 82: 1212–1241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Melki, J. P. 2007. “Television News and the State in Lebanon.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Maryland.Google Scholar
  65. Meyer, D. S. 2007. The Politics of Protest. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  66. Morris, A. 1981. “Black Southern Student Sit-in Movement: An Analysis of Internal Organization.” American Sociological Review 46: 744–776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mouawad, R. 1996. “AlGeneral Aoun min Beytihi AlAali WalArzat AlKhams. ‘General Aoun from His High House and the Five Cedars’.” Annahar, April 21, 19419 ed.: 16.Google Scholar
  68. Moukheiber, A. Interview by this author. 2014. Beirut, October 31.Google Scholar
  69. Mrad, C. Interview by this author. 2014. Jbeil, November 12.Google Scholar
  70. Munson, Z. 2010. “Mobilizing on Campus: Conservative Movements and Today’s College Students.” Sociological Forum 25 (4): 769–786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Nasrallah, A. Interview by this author. 2014. Dbayeh, October 6.Google Scholar
  72. Nemnom, E. Interview by this author. 2014. Beirut, September 9.Google Scholar
  73. Oegema, D., and B. Klandermans. 1994. “Why Social Movement Sympathizers Don’t Participate: Erosion and Nonconversion of Support.” American Sociological Review 59 (5): 703–722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Park, R. 1967. “Collective Behavior.” In Social Control and Collective Behavior, edited by R. H. Turner. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  75. Raffoul, P. Interview by this author. 2014. Beirut, October 2.Google Scholar
  76. Salloukh, B. F., R. Barakat, J. S. Al-Habbal, L. W. Khattab, S. Mikaelian, and A. Nerguizian. 2015. The Politics of Sectarianism in Postwar Lebanon. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  77. Samizdat. 2004. “Weekly Political Publication.” Samizdat, January.Google Scholar
  78. ———. 2004. “Weekly Political Publication.” Samizdat, February.Google Scholar
  79. ———. 2004. “Weekly Political Publication.” Samizdat, March.Google Scholar
  80. Sarrouh, G. E. Interview by this author. 2014. Baabda, October 16.Google Scholar
  81. Sassine, J. 1998. “Mou`akidan Khilafahu maa Arkan Altajamou` filQadaya AlDakhiliya Aoun Yashon Aanaf Maarikihi aala AlHariri. ‘Confirming His Disagreement with the Pillars of the Gathering in Internal Affairs Aoun Launches Fiercest Battles Against Hariri’.” Annahar, May 21, 20049 ed.Google Scholar
  82. Sfeir, M. Interview by this author. 2014. Jounieh, September 30.Google Scholar
  83. Smelser, N. 1962. Theory of Collective Behavior. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  84. Snow, D. A., and R. D. Benford. 2000. “Framing Processes and Social Movements: An Overview and Assessment.” Annual Review of Sociology 26: 611–639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Snow, D. A., and S. A. Soule. 2010. A Primer on Social Movements. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  86. Soule, S. A. 1997. “The Student Divestment Movement in the United States and Tactical Diffusion: The Shantytown Protest.” Social Forces 75: 855–882.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Syria Accountability and Lebanese Sovereignty Restoration Act of 2003. 2003. Public Law 108–175. 108th Congress, December 12.Google Scholar
  88. Tarraf, R. Interview by this author. 2014. Hadath, September 11.Google Scholar
  89. Taylor, V., and N. E. Whittier. 1992. “Collective Identities in Social Movement Communities: Lesbian Feminist Mobilization.” In Frontiers in Social Movement Theory, edited by A. D. Morris and C. M. Mueller, 104–130. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  90. Wilson, J. Q. 1973. Political Organizations. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  91. Zhao, D. 1998. “Ecologies of Social Movements: Student Mobilization During the 1989 Prodemocracy Movement in Beijing.” American Journal of Sociology 103 (6): 1493–1529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Zuo, J., and R. D. Benford. 1995. “Mobilization Processes and the 1989 Chinese Democracy Movement.” Sociological Quarterly 36 (1): 131–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph P. Helou
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Social SciencesLebanese American UniversityBeirutLebanon

Personalised recommendations