The Free Patriotic Movement’s Emergence in the Complex Political Economy of Post-war Lebanon

  • Joseph P. Helou
Part of the Reform and Transition in the Mediterranean book series (RTM)


This chapter explains why the FPM emerged in the period 1990–2005 in Lebanon following the expatriation of Michel Aoun to France. It uncovers the movement’s socio-economic, demographic and sectarian makeup by highlighting the role of middle-class Christians in its ranks. It reveals that this middle-class constituency fused their movement’s goals with those of the syndicates and unions in which they operated. It shows how this reality promoted the FPM’s emergence in civil society during the early half of the 1990s despite an official political ban on the movement, before seizing other opportunities to rise on a national scale in the latter half of the decade. It details the role FPM groups abroad played in supporting their movement’s activism in Lebanon.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph P. Helou
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Social SciencesLebanese American UniversityBeirutLebanon

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