Advertisement

Engineering World-Wide Multi-Agent Systems with Hypermedia

  • Andrei CiorteaEmail author
  • Olivier Boissier
  • Alessandro Ricci
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11375)

Abstract

A well studied problem in the engineering of open MASs is to enable uniform interaction among heterogeneous agents. However, AOSE as a field has grown to recognize that a MAS consists of more than only agents and thus should be designed on multiple dimensions (including the environment, organization etc.). The problem of enabling interaction among heterogeneous entities across dimensions is either not considered, or it is addressed in an ad hoc and non-uniform manner. In this chapter, we introduce a novel approach to use hypermedia as a general mechanism to support uniform interaction in MASs. The core idea is that agents use hypermedia to discover at runtime (i) other entities in a MAS (e.g., other agents, tools, organizations) and (ii) the means to interact with those entities (e.g., interaction protocols, APIs). This reduces coupling and enhances the scalability and evolvability of the MAS. We present a demonstrator that supports these claims. We believe that a hypermedia-based mechanism for uniform interaction in MASs could provide a foundation for engineering world-wide MASs.

Keywords

Multi-agent systems Hypermedia systems Interaction 

References

  1. 1.
    Berners-Lee, T., Hendler, J., Lassila, O.: The semantic web. Sci. Am. 284(5), 34–43 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Berners-Lee, T., Fischetti, M.: Weaving the Web: The Original Design and Ultimate Destiny of the World Wide Web by Its Inventor. DIANE Publishing Company, Darby (2001)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bizer, C., Heath, T., Berners-Lee, T.: Linked data - the story so far. Int. J. Semantic Web Inf. Syst. (IJSWIS) 5(3), 1–22 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Boissier, O., Bordini, R.H., Hübner, J.F., Ricci, A., Santi, A.: Multi-agent oriented programming with JaCaMo. Sci. Comput. Program. 78(6), 747–761 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brin, S., Page, L.: The anatomy of a large-scale hypertextual web search engine. Comput. Netw. ISDN Syst. 30(1), 107–117 (1998). Proceedings of the Seventh International World Wide Web ConferenceCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ciortea, A., Boissier, O., Zimmermann, A., Florea, A.M.: Give agents some REST: a resource-oriented abstraction layer for internet-scale agent environments. In: Proceedings of the 16th Conference on Autonomous Agents and MultiAgent Systems, AAMAS 2017, Richland, SC, pp. 1502–1504. International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (2017)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ciortea, A., Mayer, S., Michahelles, F.: Repurposing manufacturing lines on-the-fly with multi-agent systems for the web of things. In: Proceedings of the 17th Conference on Autonomous Agents and MultiAgent Systems, pp. 813–822 (2018)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ciortea, A., Zimmermann, A., Boissier, O., Florea, A.M.: Hypermedia-driven socio-technical networks for goal-driven discovery in the web of things. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on the Web of Things (WoT). ACM (2016)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cyganiak, R., Wood, D., Lanthaler, M.: RDF 1.1 concepts and abstract syntax, W3C recommendation. W3C Recommendation, World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), 25 February 2014Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dikenelli, O.: SEAGENT MAS platform development environment. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems: Demo Papers, pp. 1671–1672. International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (2008)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Duerst, M., Suignard, M.: Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs). RFC 3987 (Proposed Standard), January 2005Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Exposito, J., Ametller, J., Robles, S.: Configuring the JADE HTTP MTP (2010). http://jade.tilab.com/documentation/tutorials-guides/configuring-the-jade-http-mtp/. Accessed 15 Nov 2016
  13. 13.
    Fielding, R., Reschke, J.: Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content. RFC 7231 (Proposed Standard), June 2014Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fielding, R.T., Taylor, R.N.: Principled design of the modern web architecture. ACM Trans. Internet Technol. 2(2), 115–150 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fielding, R.T.: Architectural styles and the design of network-based software architectures. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Irvine (2000)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents. FIPA ACL Message Structure Specification (2002). http://www.fipa.org/specs/fipa00061/SC00061G.html. Document number: SC00061G
  17. 17.
    Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents. FIPA Agent Message Transport Protocol for HTTP Specification (2002). http://www.fipa.org/specs/fipa00084/SC00084F.html. Document number: SC00084F
  18. 18.
    Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents. FIPA Agent Management Specification (2004). http://www.fipa.org/specs/fipa00023/SC00023K.html. Document number: SC00023K
  19. 19.
    Gibbins, N., Harris, S., Shadbolt, N.: Agent-based semantic web services. Web Semant.: Sci. Serv. Agents World Wide Web 1(2), 141–154 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gouaïch, A., Bergeret, M.: REST-A: an agent virtual machine based on REST framework. In: Demazeau, Y., Dignum, F., Corchado, J.M., Pérez, J.B. (eds.) Advances in Practical Applications of Agents and Multiagent Systems, vol. 70, pp. 103–112. Springer, Heidelberg (2010).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-12384-9_13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gregori, M.E., Cámara, J.P., Bada, G.A.: A jabber-based multi-agent system platform. In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, pp. 1282–1284. ACM (2006)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hübner, J.F., Sichman, J.S., Boissier, O.: Developing organised multiagent systems using the MOISE+ Model: programming issues at the system and agent levels. Int. J. Agent-Oriented Softw. Eng. 1(3/4), 370–395 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Huhns, M.N.: Agents as web services. IEEE Internet Comput. 6(4), 93 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Huhns, M.N., Singh, M.P.: Service-oriented computing: key concepts and principles. IEEE Internet Comput. 9(1), 75–81 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kaebisch, S., Kamiya, T.: Web of Things (WoT) Thing Description, W3C Working Draft 5 April 2018Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kahn, M.L., Cicalese, C.D.T.: Coabs grid scalability experiments. Auton. Agent. Multi-Agent Syst. 7(1), 171–178 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lanthaler, M., Gütl, C.: Hydra: a vocabulary for hypermedia-driven web APIs. In: Proceedings of the WWW 2013 Workshop on Linked Data on the Web, vol. 996. CEUR WS (2013)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Limón, X., Guerra-Hernández, A., Ricci, A.: Distributed transparency in endogenous environments: the JaCaMo case. In: El Fallah-Seghrouchni, A., Ricci, A., Son, T.C. (eds.) EMAS 2017. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 10738, pp. 109–124. Springer, Cham (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-91899-0_7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mitrović, D., Ivanović, M., Budimac, Z., Vidaković, M.: Radigost: interoperable web-based multi-agent platform. J. Syst. Softw. 90, 167–178 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Pautasso, C., Zimmermann, O., Leymann, F.: Restful web services vs. “big” web services: making the right architectural decision. In: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on World Wide Web, WWW 2008, New York, NY, USA, pp. 805–814. ACM (2008)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Prud’hommeaux, E., Carothers, G.: RDF 1.1 Turtle - Terse RDF Triple Language. W3C Recommendation, World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), 25 February 2014Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ricci, A., Piunti, M., Viroli, M.: Environment programming in multi-agent systems: an artifact-based perspective. Auton. Agent. Multi-Agent Syst. 23(2), 158–192 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Shelby, Z., Hartke, K., Bormann, C.: The Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP). RFC 7252 (Proposed Standard), June 2014Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Singh, M.P.: Information-driven interaction-oriented programming: BSPL, the blindingly simple protocol language. In: The 10th International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems - Volume 2, AAMAS 2011, Richland, SC, pp. 491–498. International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (2011)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Singh, M.P., Huhns, M.N.: Service-Oriented Computing: Semantics, Processes, Agents. Wiley, Hoboken (2006)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Viroli, M., Ricci, A., Omicini, A.: Operating instructions for intelligent agent coordination. Knowl. Eng. Rev. 21(1), 49–69 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Weyns, D., Omicini, A., Odell, J.: Environment as a first class abstraction in multiagent systems. Auton. Agent. Multi-Agent Syst. 14(1), 5–30 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Willmott, S., Dale, J., Burg, B., Charlton, P., O’Brien, P.: Agentcities: a worldwide open agent network. Agentlink News, vol. 8 (2001)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrei Ciortea
    • 1
    Email author
  • Olivier Boissier
    • 1
  • Alessandro Ricci
    • 2
  1. 1.Univ. Lyon, MINES Saint-Étienne, CNRS Lab Hubert Curien UMR 5516Saint-ÉtienneFrance
  2. 2.University of BolognaCesenaItaly

Personalised recommendations