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Fungal Enzymes for Bioremediation of Contaminated Soil

  • Prem Chandra
  • Enespa
Chapter
Part of the Fungal Biology book series (FUNGBIO)

Abstract

Using important various fungal enzymes has been in practice for the removal of contaminants in the soil which is polluted by various effluents. The white rot fungi are more effective in biodegrading a wide range of organic molecules due to their release of extracellular lignin transforming enzymes. Various enzymes are employed for biodegrading lignin, and these include lignin-peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP), various H2O2-producing enzymes, and laccase. The biodegradation can be improved by the addition of carbon sources such as sawdust, straw, and corn cob at various soil polluted sites. Various ecological groups are deliberated for the bioremediation, that is, the white rot fungi, brown rot fungi (the saprotrophic basidiomycetes), and the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes have the capability for in vitro biodegradation of simple and recalcitrant hydrocarbons like PAH, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), halogenated HC, aromatic HC and phenols, explosives and dyes, and this was reported for many species in contaminated soil at various sites. Several fungal strains such as Agaricus sp., Amanita sp., Cortinarius sp., Boletus sp., Leccinum sp., Suillus sp., Pleurotus sp. and Phellinus sp. are some of the mushrooms applicable for the mobilization/complexation of heavy metals Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, and As in soil. Carcinogenic secondary metabolite aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a natural toxin and heavy metal, is biodegraded by P. ostreatus, an edible mushroom. Various potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs) are also accumulated in the fruiting bodies of mushrooms like Phellinus badius, Amanita spissa, Lactarius piperatus, Suillus grevillei, Agaricus bisporus, Tricholoma terreum, and Fomes fomentarius. The accumulation capability was higher than that of plants, vegetables, and fruits.

Keywords

Bioremediation enzymes fungi heavy metals mycoremediation and pesticides 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to the Department of Environmental Microbiology, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, and Department of Plant Pathology, School for Agriculture, MPDC, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, for providing valuable support to write this chapter. There are no conflicts of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Prem Chandra
    • 1
  • Enespa
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Microbiology, School for Environmental SciencesBabasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar (A Central) UniversityLucknowIndia
  2. 2.Department of Plant Pathology, School of AgricultureMPDC, University of LucknowLucknowIndia

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