Bioremediation: New Prospects for Environmental Cleaning by Fungal Enzymes

  • Neha Vishnoi
  • Sonal Dixit
Part of the Fungal Biology book series (FUNGBIO)


Bioremediation is an economical and environment-friendly technique which is powered mainly by microbial enzymes. Many genera of bacteria and fungi produce enzymes which have evolved in the detoxification and degradation of toxic organic pollutants. Fungal organisms have been used extensively for degradation of pollutants as they are environment-friendly and economical in nature. Fungal bioremediation is a promising technology, using their metabolic potential to remove or reduce pollutants. Their potential to remove toxic substances and produce polymeric products makes them a useful tool for bioremediation purposes. They exhibit a unique property to tolerate high concentrations of pollutants and degrade a broad range of toxic pollutants. They act via the extracellular ligninolytic enzymes, including laccase, manganese peroxidase, and lignin peroxidase. In the remediation process, they utilize both soluble and insoluble hazardous compounds as the nutrient source and convert them into simple fragmented forms. Currently, usage of enzymes produced extracellularly is not gaining much attention due to its high production cost. However, bench and field studies have proved enzymatic methods to be feasible choice for bioremediation. The purpose of this chapter is to present descriptive information on the fungal enzymes utilized in the bioremediation of recalcitrant, as well as the pros and cons associated with the use of such enzymes.


Bioremediation Enzymes Fungi Laccase Peroxidase Pollution 



The author Sonal Dixit acknowledges DSKPDF Cell, Pune, India, and University Grant Commission, New Delhi, India, for the financial assistance in the form of D.S. Kothari Postdoctoral Fellowship (F4-2/2006 (BSR)/BL/15-16/0156). There are no conflicts of interest among authors.


  1. Adams GO, Fufeyin PT, Okoro SE, Ehinomen I (2015) Bioremediation, biostimulation and bioaugmention: a review. Int J Environ Bioremed Biodegrad 3(1):28–39Google Scholar
  2. Adhiya J, Cai X, Sayre RT, Traina SJ (2002) Binding of aqueous cadmium by the lyophilized biomass of Chlamydomonas reinhardtti. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 210:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Agarry S, Latinwo GK (2015) Biodegradation of diesel oil in soil and its enhancement by application of bioventing and amendment with brewery waste effluents as biostimulation-bioaugmentation agents. J Ecol Eng 16(2):82–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahluwalia SS, Goyal D (2006) Microbial and plant derived biomass for removal of heavy metals from wastewater. Bioresour Technol 98(12):2243–2257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ahuja SK, Ferreira GM, Moreira AR (2004) Utilization of enzymes for environmental applications. Crit Rev Biotechnol 24(2–3):125–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Akhtar S, Mahmood-ul-Hassan M, Ahmad R, Suthor V, Yasin M (2013) Metal tolerance potential of filamentous fungi isolated from soils irrigated with untreated municipal effluent. Soil Environ 32:55–62Google Scholar
  7. Alvarez-Cohen L, Speitel GE Jr (2001) Kinetics of aerobic cometabolism of chlorinated solvents. Biodegradation 2:105–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Alwan AH, Fadil SM, Khadair SH, Haloub AA, Mohammed DB, Salah MF, Sabbar SS, Mousa NK, Salah ZA (2013) Bioremediation of the water contaminated by waste of hydrocarbon by use Ceratophyllaceae and Potamogetonaceae plants. J Genet Environ Resour Conserv 1:106–110Google Scholar
  9. Anastasi A, Tigini V, Varese GC (2013) The bioremediation potential of different ecophysiological groups of fungi. In: Goltapeh EM et al (eds) Fungi as bioremediators. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 29–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Antizar-Ladislao B, Spanova K, Beck AJ, Russell NJ (2008) Microbial community structure changes during bioremediation of PAHs in an aged coal-tar contaminated soil by in vessel composting. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 61:357–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Aranda E, Scervino JM, Godoy P, Reina R, Ocampo JA, Wittich R-M, García-Romera I (2013) Role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus custos in the dissipation of PAHs under root-organ culture conditions. Environ Pollut 181:182–189PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Arıca MY, Bayramoglu G, Yılmaz M, Genc O, Bektas S (2004) Biosorption of Hg, Cd and Zn by Ca-alginate and immobilized wood rotting fungus Funalia trogii. J Hazard Mater 109:191–199PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ayu KR, Tony H, Tadashi T, Yasuhiro T, Kazuhiro M (2011) Bioremediation of crude oil by white rot fungi Polyporus sp. S133. J Microbiol Biotechnol 21(9):995–1000CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Badia-Fabregat M, Lucas D, Gros M, Rodríguez-Mozaz S, Barceló D, Caminal G, Vicent T (2015) Identification of some factors affecting pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs) removal in real wastewater. Case study of fungal treatment of reverse osmosis concentrate. J Hazard Mater 283:663–671PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bai SR, Abraham TE (2001) Biosorption of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution by Rhizopus nigricans. Bioresour Technol 79:73–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Balaji V, Arulazhagan P, Ebenezer P (2014) Enzymatic bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons by fungal consortia enriched from petroleum contaminated soil and oil seeds. J Environ Biol 35:521–529PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Bastos AC, Magan N (2009) Trametes versicolor: potential for atrazine bioremediation in calcareous clay soil, under low water availability conditions. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation 63:389–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bennett RM, Cordero PRF, Bautista GS, Dedeles GR (2013) Reduction of hexavalent chromium using fungi and bacteria isolated from contaminated soil and water samples. Chem Ecol 29:320–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bernhard-Reversat F, Schwartz D (1997) Change in lignin content during litter decomposition in tropical forest soils (Congo): comparison of exotic plantations and native stands. C R Acad Sci 325(6):427–432Google Scholar
  20. Betancor L, Johnson GR, Luckarift HR (2013) Stabilized laccases as heterogeneous bioelectrocatalysts. Chem Cat Chem 5:46–60Google Scholar
  21. Bhargava S, Wenger KS, Marten MR (2003) Pulsed addition of limiting-carbon during Aspergillus oryzae fermentation leads to improved productivity of a recombinant enzyme. Biotechnol Bioeng 82(1):111–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bollag J-M (1992) Decontaminating soil with enzymes: an in situ method using phenolic and anilinic compounds. Environ Sci Techol 26(10):1876–1881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bonugli-Santos RC, dos Santos Vasconcelos MR, Passarini MR et al (2015) Marine-derived fungi: diversity of enzymes and biotechnological applications. Front Microbiol 6:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bonugli-Santos RC, Durrant LR, Sette LD (2012) The production of ligninolytic enzymes by marine-derived Basidiomycetes and their biotechnological potential in the biodegradation of recalcitrant pollutants and the treatment of textile effluents. Water Air Soil Pollut 223:2333–2345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Boopathy R (2000) Factors limiting bioremediation technologies. Bioresour Technol 74:63–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Buvaneswari S, Damodarkumar S, Murugesan S (2013) Bioremediation studies on sugar-mill effluent by selected fungal species. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 2:50–58Google Scholar
  27. Cameron MD, Timofeevski S, Aust SD (2000) Enzymology of Phanerochaete chrysosporium with respect to the degradation of recalcitrant compounds and xenobiotics. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 54:751–758PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Castillo MD, Ander P, Stenstrom J, Torstensson L (2000) Degradation of the herbicide bentazon as related to enzyme production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in two solid substrate fermentation systems. W J Microbiol Biotechnol 16:289–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chakraborty S, Mukherjee A, Das TK (2013) Biochemical characterization of a lead-tolerant strain of Aspergillus foetidus: an implication of bioremediation of lead from liquid media. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation 84:134–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chang YT, Lee JF, Liu KH, Liao YF, Yang V (2015) Immobilization of fungal laccase onto a nonionic surfactant-modified clay material: application to PAH degradation. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23(5):4024–4035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chatterjee S, Gupta D, Roy P, Chatterjee NC, Saha P, Dutta S (2011) Study of a lead tolerant yeast strain BUSCY1 (MTCC9315). Afr J Microbiol Res 5:5362–5372Google Scholar
  32. Chhaya U, Gupte A (2013) Possible role of laccase from Fusarium incarnatum UC-14 In bioremediation of Bisphenol A using reverse micelles system. J Hazard Mater 254–255:149–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Chiu S-W, Gao T, Chan CS-S, Ho CK-M (2009) Removal of spilled petroleum in industrial soils by spent compost of mushroom Pleurotus pulmonarius. Chemosphere 75:837–842PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Connel L, Staudigel H (2013) Fungal diversity in a dark oligotrophic volcanic ecosystem (DOVE) on Mount Erebus, Antarctica. Biology 2:798–809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Csutak O, Stoica I, Ghindea R, Ana-Maria T, Vassu T (2010) Insights on yeast bioremediation processes. Rom Biotech Lett 15(2):5066–5071Google Scholar
  36. Cutright TJ, Erdem Z (2012) Overview of the bioremediation and the degradation pathways of DDT. J Adnan Menderes Univ Agric Fac 9:39–45Google Scholar
  37. Damare S, Singh P, Raghukumar S (2012) Biotechnology of marine fungi. Prog Mol Subcell Biol 53:277–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dana LD, Bauder JW (2011) A general essay on bioremediation of contaminated soil. Montana State University, Bozeman, MontGoogle Scholar
  39. Davis S, Burns RG (1992) Covalent immobilization of laccase on activated carbon for phenolic effluent treatment. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 37:474–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Delille D, Duval A, Pelletier E (2008) Highly efficient pilot biopiles for onsite fertilization treatment of diesel oil-contaminated sub-Antarctic soil. Cold Reg Sci Technol 54:7–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Demnerova K, Mackova M, Spevakova V et al (2005) Two approaches to biological decontamination of groundwater and soil polluted by aromatics characterization of microbial populations. Int Microbiol 8:205–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Deshmukh R, Khardenavis AA, Purohit HJ (2016) Diverse metabolic capacities of fungi for bioremediation. Indian J Microbiol 56(3):247–264PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Dhakar K, Jain R, Tamta S, Pandey A (2014) Prolonged laccase production by a cold and pH tolerant strain of Penicillium pinophilum (MCC 1049) isolated from a low temperature environment. Enzyme Res:120708Google Scholar
  44. Divya LM, Prasanth GK, Sadasivan C (2013) Potential of the salt-tolerant laccase-producing strain Trichoderma viride Pers. NFCCI-2745 from an estuary in the bioremediation of phenol polluted environments. J Basic Microbiol 54:542–547PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Dodor DE, Hwang HM, Ekunwe SIN (2004) Oxidation of anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene by immobilized laccase from Trametes versicolor. Enzym Microb Technol 35:210–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Donmez G (2002) Bioaccumulation of the reactive textile dyes by Candida tropicalis growing in molasses medium. Enzym Microb Technol 20:363–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. dos Santos Bazanella GC, Araujo AV, Castoldi R, Maciel GM, Inacio FD, de Souza CGM, Bracht A, Peralta RM (2013) Ligninolytic enzymes from white-rot fungi and application in the removal of synthetic dyes. In: Polizeli TM, Rai M, De Lourdes M (eds) Fungal enzymes. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 258–279Google Scholar
  48. dos Santos YVS, Freire DA, Pinheiro SB, de Lima LF, de Souza JVB, Cavallazzi JRP (2015) Production of laccase from a white rot fungi isolated from the Amazon forest for oxidation of Remazol Brilliant Blue-R. Sci Res Essays 10:132–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Dua M, Singh A, Sethunathan N, Johri A (2002) Biotechnology and bioremediation: successes and limitations. App Microbiol Biotechnol 59(2–3):143–152Google Scholar
  50. Duarte K, Justino CI, Pereira R, Panteleitchouk TS, Freitas AC, Rocha-Santos TA, Duarte AC (2013) Removal of the organic content from a bleached kraft pulp mill effluent by a treatment with silica–alginate–fungi biocomposites. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 48:166–172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Duran N, Esposito E (2000) Potential applications of oxidative enzymes and phenoloxidase-like compounds in wastewater and soil treatment: a review. Appl Catal B Environ 28:83–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ellegaard-Jensen L, Aamand J, Kragelund BB, Johnsen AH, Rosendahl S (2013) Strains of the soil fungus Mortierella show different degradation potentials for the phenylurea herbicide diuron. Biodegradation 24:765–774PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Emami S, Pourbabaee AA, Alikhani HA (2012) Bioremediation principles and techniques on petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Tech J Eng App Sci 2(10):320–323Google Scholar
  54. Fan B, Zhao Y, Mo G, Ma W, Wu J (2013) Co-remediation of DDT-contaminated soil using white-rot fungi and laccase extract from white-rot fungi. J Soils Sediments 13:1232–1245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Favero N, Costa P, Massimino ML (1991) In vitro uptake of cadmium by basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus. Biotechnol Lett 10:701–704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Fernández-Fueyo E, Ruiz-Dueñas FJ, Martínez AT (2014) Engineering a fungal peroxidase that degrades lignin at very acidic pH. Biotechnol Biofuels 7(1):2PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Fester T (2013) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a wetland constructed for benzene-, methyl tert-butyl ether- and ammonia contaminated groundwater bioremediation. Microb Biotechnol 6:80–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Fetzner S, Lingens F (1994) Bacterial dehalogenases: biochemistry, genetics, and biotechnological applications. Microbiol Rev 58(4):641–685PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Fillat U, Prieto A, Camararo S, Martinez AT, Martinez MJ (2012) Biodeinking of flexographic inks by fungal laccases using synthetic and natural mediators. Biochem Eng J 67:97–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Fonseca MI, Farina JI, Sanabria NI, Villalba LL, Zapata PD (2013) Influence of culture conditions on laccase production, growth and isoenzyme patterns in native white-rot fungi from the Misiones rainforest. Bioresources 8:2855–2866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ford CI, Walter M, Northcott GL et al (2007) Fungal inoculum properties: extracellular enzyme expression and pentachlorophenol removal in highly contaminated field soils. J Environ Qual 36:1599–1608PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Fullbrook PD (1996) Kinetics. In: Godfrey T, Reichelt J (eds) Industrial enzymology: the application of enzymes in industry, 2nd edn. Nature, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  63. Gao GR, Yin YF, Yang DY, Yang DF (2013) Promoting behavior of fungal degradation Polychlorinated Biphenyl by Maifanite. Adv Mater Res 662:515–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Garg SN, Baranwal RM, Mishra SC, Chaudhuri TK, Bisaria VS (2008) Laccase of Cyathus bulleri: structural, catalytic characterization and expression in Escherichia coli. Biochim Biophys Acta 1784:259–268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Gianfreda L, Rao MA (2004) Potential of extracellular enzymes in remediation of polluted soils: a review. Enzym Microb Technol 35:339–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Gianfreda L, Xu F, Bollag JM (1999) Laccases: a useful group of oxidoreductive enzymes. Biorem J 3(1):1–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Giardina P, Cannio R, Martirani L, Marzullo L, Palmieri G, Sannia G (1995) Cloning and sequencing of a laccase gene from the lignin-degrading basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus. Appl Environ Microbiol 61(6):2408–2413PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Godfrey T, Reichelt J (1996) Introduction to industrial enzymology. In: Godfrey T, Reichelt J (eds) Industrial enzymology: the application of enzymes in industry, 2nd edn. Nature, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  69. Gomes NCM, Rosa CA, Pimentel PF, Mendonça-Hagler LCS (2002) Uptake of free and complexed silver ions by different strains of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. Braz J Microbiol 33:62–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Gomez F, Sartaj M (2014) Optimization of field scale biopiles for bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil at low temperature conditions by response surface methodology (RSM). Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 89:103–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Gosavi K, Sammut J, Gifford S, Jankowski J (2004) Macroalgal biomonitors of trace metal contamination in acid sulfate soil aquaculture ponds. Sci Total Environ 324:25–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Gül ÜD, Dönmez G (2013) Application of mixed fungal biomass for effective reactive dye removal from textile effluents. Desalin Water Treat 51:3597–3603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hadibarata T, Teh ZC, Zubir MM, Khudhair AB, Yusoff AR, Salim MR, Hidayat T (2013) Identification of naphthalene metabolism by white-rot fungus Pleurotus eryngii. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 24:728–732Google Scholar
  74. Hammel KE (1997) Fungal degradation of lignin. In: Cadisch G, Giller KE (eds) Driven by nature: plant litter quality and decomposition. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 33–45Google Scholar
  75. Hattori T, Hisamori H, Suzuki S, Umezawa T, Yoshimura T, Sakai H (2015) Rapid copper transfer and precipitation by wood-rotting fungi can effect copper removal from copper sulfate-treated wood blocks during solid-state fungal treatment. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation 97:195–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. He L, Huang H, Zhang Z, Lei Z (2015) A review of hydrothermal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for enhanced biogas production. Curr Org Chem 19:437–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Hickey P (2013) Toxicity of water soluble fractions of crude oil on some bacteria and fungi Isolated from marine water. Am J Anim Res 3:24–29Google Scholar
  78. Hiner ANP, Ruiz JH, Rodri JN et al (2002) Reactions of the class II peroxidases, lignin peroxidase and Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase, with hydrogen peroxide: catalase-like activity, compound III formation, and enzyme inactivation. J Biol Chem 277(30):26879–26885PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Hofrichter M, Ullrich R (2014) Oxidations catalyzed by fungal peroxygeneases. Curr Opin Chem Biol 19:116–125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Huang J, Fu Y, Liu Y (2014) Comparison of alkali-tolerant fungus Myrothecium sp. IMER1 and white-rot fungi for decolorization of textile dyes and dye effluents. J Bioremed Biodegr 5:1–5Google Scholar
  81. Hublik G, Schinner F (2000) Characterization and immobilization of the laccase from Pleurotus ostreatus and its use for the continuous elimination of phenolic pollutants. Enzym Microb Technol 27:330–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Husain Q (2006) Potential applications of the oxidoreductive enzymes in the decolorization and detoxification of textile and other synthetic dyes from polluted water: a review. Crit Rev Biotechnol 26(4):201–221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Ikehata K (2015) Use of fungal laccases and peroxidases for enzymatic treatment of wastewater containing synthetic dyes. In: Sharma SK (ed) Green Chemistry for Dyes Removal from Wastewater: Research Trends and Applications. Wiley online library. Scholar
  84. Isola D, Selbmann L, de Hoog GS, Fenice M, Onofri S, Prenafeta-Boldú FX, Zucconi L (2013) Isolation and screening of black fungi as degraders of volatile aromatic hydrocarbons. Mycopathologia 175:369–379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Jain PK, Gupta VK, Bajpai V et al (2011) GMO’s: perspective of bioremediation. In: Jain PK, Gupta VK, Bajpai V (eds) Recent advances in environmental biotechnology. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing AG and Co. KG, Germany, pp 6–23Google Scholar
  86. Jain PK, Gupta VK, Gaur RK et al (2010) Fungal enzymes: potential tools of environmental processes. In: Gupta VK, Tuohy M, Gaur RK (eds) Fungal biochemistry and biotechnology. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing AG and Co. KG, Germany, pp 44–56Google Scholar
  87. Jebapriya GR, Gnanadoss JJ (2013) Bioremediation of textile dye using white-rot fungi: a review. Int J Curr Res Rev 5:1–13Google Scholar
  88. Kallio JP, Gasparetti C, Andberg M, Boer H, Koivula A, Kruus K et al (2011) Crystal structure of an ascomycete fungal laccase from Thielavia arenaria–common structural features of ascolaccases. FEBS J 278:2283–2295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Karigar CS, Rao SS (2011) Role of microbial enzymes in the bioremediation of pollutants: a review. Enzyme Res:805187Google Scholar
  90. Keum YS, Li QX (2004) Fungal laccase-catalyzed degradation of hydroxy polychlorinated biphenyls. Chemosphere 56:23–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Khardenavis A, Wang JY, Ng WJ, Purohit HJ (2013) Management of various organic fractions of municipal solid waste via recourse to VFA and biogas generation. Environ Technol 34:2085–2097PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Kim JS, Park JW, Lee SE, Kim JE (2002) Formation of bound residues of 8-hydroxybentazon by oxidoreductive catalysts in soil. J Agric Food Chem 50(12):3507–3511PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Koua D, Cerutti L, Falquet L et al (2009) PeroxiBase: a database with new tools for peroxidase family classification. Nucleic Acids Res 37(1):D261–D266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Kour D, Rana KL, Yadav N, Yadav AN, Rastegari AA, Singh C, Negi P, Singh K, Saxena AK (2019a) Technologies for Biofuel Production: current development, challenges, and future prospects. In: Rastegari AA, Yadav AN, Gupta A (eds) Prospects of renewable bioprocessing in future energy systems. Springer, Cham, pp 1–50Google Scholar
  95. Kour D, Rana KL, Yadav N, Yadav AN, Singh J, Rastegari AA, Saxena AK (2019b) Agriculturally and industrially important fungi: current developments and potential biotechnological applications. In: Yadav AN, Singh S, Mishra S, Gupta A (eds) Recent advancement in white biotechnology through fungi, Perspective for value-added products and environments, vol 2. Springer, Cham, pp 1–64Google Scholar
  96. Kratochvil D, Volesky B (1998) Advances in the biosorption of heavy metals. Trends Biotechnol 16:291–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Ksheminska H, Jaglarz A, Fedorovych D, Babyak L, Yanovych D, Kaszycki P, Koloczek H (2003) Bioremediation of chromium by the yeast Pichia guilliermondii: toxicity and accumulation of Cr (III) and Cr (VI) and the influence of riboflavin on Cr tolerance. Microbiol Res 158(1):59–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Kujan P, Prell A, Safar H, Sobotka M, Rezanka T, Holler PP (2006) Use of the industrial yeast Candida utilis for cadmium sorption. Folia Microbiol 51:257–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Kulshreshtha S (2013) Genetically engineered microorganisms: a problem solving approach for bioremediation. J Bioremed Biodegr 4(4):1–2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Kumar A, Bisht BS, Joshi VD et al (2011) Review on bioremediation of polluted environment: a management tool. Int J Environ Sci 1(6):1079–1093Google Scholar
  101. Kumar S, Chaurasia P, Kumar A (2016) Isolation and characterization of microbial strains from textile industry effluents of Bhilwara, India: analysis with bioremediation. J Chem Pharma Res 8(4):143–150Google Scholar
  102. Kurniati E, Arfarita N, Imai T, Higuchi T, Kanno A, Yamamoto K, Sekine M (2014) Potential bioremediation of mercury-contaminated substrate using filamentous fungi isolated from forest soil. J Environ Sci 26:1223–1231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Lau KL, Tsang YY, Chiu SW (2003) Use of spent mushroom compost to bioremediate PAH-contaminated samples. Chemosphere 52:1539–1546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Lehninger AL, Nelson DL, Cox MM (2004) Lehninger’s principles of biochemistry, 4th edn. Freeman WH, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  105. Leontievsky AA, Myasoedova NM, Baskunov BP, Evans CS, Golovleva LA (2000) Transformation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol by the white rot fungi Panus tigrinus and Coriolus versicolor. Biodegradation 11:331–340PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Levin L, Viale A, Forchiassin A (2003) Degradation of organic pollutants by the white rot basidiomycete Trametes trogii. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation 52(1):1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Li CH, Wong YS, Tam NF (2010) Anaerobic biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with amendment of iron (III) in mangrove sediment slurry. Bioresour Technol 101:8083–8092PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Li Y, Fu K, Gao S, Wu Q, Fan L, Li Y, Chen J (2013) Increased virulence of transgenic Trichoderma koningi strains to the Asian corn borer larvae by over-expressing heterologous chit42 gene with chitin-binding domains. J Environ Sci Health B 48:376–383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Li Y, Li B (2011) Study on fungi-bacteria consortium bioremediation of petroleum contaminated mangrove sediments amended with mixed biosurfactants. Adv Mater Res 183:1163–1167Google Scholar
  110. Liers C, Pecyna MJ, Kellner H, Worrich A, Holger Z, Steffen KT, Hofrichter M, Ullrich R (2013) Substrate oxidation by dyedecolorizing peroxidases (DyPs) from wood- and litter- degrading agaricomycetes compared to other fungal and plant heme-peroxidases. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 97:5839–5849PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. Lin X, Li X, Sun T, Li P, Zhou Q, Sun L, Hu X (2009) Changes in microbial populations and enzyme activities during the bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 83:542–547PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Liu Z, Hong Q, Xu JH, Jun W, Li SP (2006) Construction of a genetically engineered microorganism for degrading organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation 58:65–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Lladó S, Covino S, Solanas AM, Vinas M, Petruccioli M, Dannibale A (2013) Comparative assessment of bioremediation approaches to highly recalcitrant PAH degradation in a real industrial polluted soil. J Hazard Mater 248–249:407–414PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Ma L, Zhuo R, Liu H, Yu D, Jiang M, Zhang X, Yang Y (2014) Efficient decolorization and detoxification of the sulfonated azo dye Reactive Orange 16 and simulated textile wastewater containing Reactive Orange 16 by the white-rot fungus Ganoderma sp. En3 isolated from the forest of Tzu-chin Mountain in China. Biochem Eng J 82:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Madhavi GN, Mohini DD (2012) Review paper on– parameters affecting bioremediation. Int J Life Sci Pharma Res 2(3):77–80Google Scholar
  116. Madigan MT, Martinko JM, Parker J (2003) Brock biology of microorganisms, 10th edn. Prentice–Hall/Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJGoogle Scholar
  117. Mai C, Schormann W, Majcherczyk A, Hutterman A (2004) Degradation of acrylic copolymers by white rot fungi. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 65:479–487PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Mai C, Schormann W, Milstein O, Huttermann A (2000) Enhanced stability of laccase in the presence of phenolic compounds. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 54(4):510–514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Malik ZA, Ahmed S (2012) Degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons by oil field isolated bacterial consortium. African J Biotechnol 11(3):650–658Google Scholar
  120. Marco E, Font X, Sánchez A, Gea T, Gabarrell X, Caminal G (2013) Co-composting as a management strategy to reuse the white–rot fungus Trametes versicolor after its use in a biotechnological process. Int J Environ Waste Manag 11:100–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Margot J, Bennati-Granier C, Maillard J, Blánquez P, Barry DA, Holliger C (2013) Bacterial versus fungal laccase: potential for micropollutant degradation. AMB Express 3:63PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Maruthi YA, Hossain K, Thakre S (2013) Aspergillus flavus: a potential bioremediator for oil contaminated soils. Eur J Sustain Dev 2:57–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Mate D, Garcia-Ruiz E, Camarero S, Alcalde M (2011) Directed evolution of fungal laccases. Curr Genomics 12:113–122PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Mayer AM, Staples RC (2002) Laccase: new functions for an old enzyme. Phytochemistry 60(6):551–565PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  125. Mehta V, Chavan A (2009) Physico-chemical treatment of tar-containing wastewater generated from biomass gasification plants. World Acad Sci Eng Technol 57:161–168Google Scholar
  126. Mitra A, Roy D, Roy P, Bor AM, Sarkar Mitra AK (2014) Sustainability of Aspergillus spp. in metal enriched substrate aiming towards increasing bioremediation potential. World J Pharm Sci 3:864–878Google Scholar
  127. Mougin C, Boyer F-D, Caminade E, Rama R (2000) Cleavage of the diketonitrile derivative of the herbicide isoxaflutole by extracellular fungal oxidases. J Agric Food Chem 48:4529–4534PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Mouhamadou B, Faure M, Sage L, Marçais J, Souard F, Geremia RA (2013) Potential of autochthonous fungal strains isolated from contaminated soils for degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls. Fungal Biol 117:268–274PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  129. Mulligana CN, Yong RN (2004) Natural attenuation of contaminated soils. Environ Int 30:587–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Muraleedharan TR, Venkobachar C (1990) Mechanism of biosorption of copper (II) by Ganoderma lucidum. Biotechnol Bioeng 35:320–325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Naranjo-Briceno L, Perniam B, Guerra M et al (2013) Potential role of oxidative exoenzymes of the extremophilic fungus Pestalotiopsis palmarum BM-04 in biotransformation of extra heavy crude oil. Microb Biotechnol 6:720–730PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  132. Narayanan K, Chopade N, Raj PV, Subrahmanyam VM, Rao JV (2013) Fungal chitinase production and its application in biowaste management. J Sci Ind Res 72:393–399Google Scholar
  133. Nayak V, Pai PV, Pai A, Pai S, Sushma YD, Rao CV (2013) A comparative study of caffeine degradation by four different fungi. Biorem J 17:79–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Neagoe A, Merten D, Iordachec V, Buchel G (2009) The effect of bioremediation methods involving different degrees of soil disturbance on the export of metals by leaching and by plant uptake. Chem Erde 69:57–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Neifar M, Maktouf S, Ghorbel RE, Jaouani A, Cherif A (2015) Extremophiles as source of novel bioactive compounds with industrial potential. In: Gupta VK, Tuohy MG, O’Donovan A, Lohani M (eds) Biotechnology of bioactive compounds: sources and applications. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 245–268Google Scholar
  136. Nigam PS (2013) Microbial enzymes with special characteristics for biotechnological applications. Biomol Ther 3:597–611Google Scholar
  137. Niu GL, Zhang JJ, Zhao S et al (2009) Bioaugmentation of a 4-chloronitrobenzene contaminated soil with Pseudomonas putida ZWL73. Environ Pollut 57:763–771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Novotny C, Svobodova K, Erbanova P, Cajthaml T, Kasinath A, Lang E, Sasek Y (2004) Ligninolytic fungi in bioremediation: extracellular enzyme production and degradation rate. Soil Biol Biochem 36:1545–1551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Novotný Č, BRM V, Erbanová P, Kubátová A, Šašek V (1997) Removal of PCBs by various white rot fungi in liquid cultures. Folia Microbiol 42:136–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Park JW, Park BK, Kim JE (2006) Remediation of soil contaminated with 2,4-dichlorophenol by treatment of minced shepherd’s purse roots. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 50(2):191–195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Patel SKS, Kalia VC, Choi J-H, Haw J-R, Kim I-W, Lee JK (2014) Immobilization of laccase on SiO2 nanocarriers improves its stability and reusability. J Microbiol Biotechnol 24:639–647PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Piontek K, Smith AT, Blodig W (2001) Lignin peroxidase structure and function. Biochem Soc Trans 29(2):111–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Pita T, Alves-Pereira I, Ferreira R (2013) Decline in peroxidase and catalases by lindane may cause an increase in reactive oxygen species in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In: Mendez-Vilas A (ed) Industrial, medical and environmental applications of microorganisms, current status and trends. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Netherlands, pp 83–87Google Scholar
  144. Polak J, Jarosz-Wilkolazka A (2012) Fungal laccases as green catalysts for dye synthesis. Process Biochem 47:1295–1307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Prescott LM, Harley JP, Klein DA (2002) Microbiology: food and industrial microbiology, 5th edn. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 978–981Google Scholar
  146. Purnomo AS, Mori T, Putra SR, Kondo R (2013) Biotransformation of heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide by white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 82:40–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Reya I, Lakshmi Prabha M, Renitta E (2013) Equilibrium and kinetic studies on biosorption of Cr(VI) using novel Aspergillus jegita isolated from tannery effluent. Res J Chem Environ 17:72–78Google Scholar
  148. Rezende MI, Barbosa AM, Vasconcelos A-FD, Haddad R, Dekker RFH (2005) Growth and production of laccases by the ligninolytic fungi, Pleurotus ostreatus and Botryosphaeria rhodina, cultured on basal medium containing the herbicide pter® (imazaquin). J Basic Microbiol 45(6):460–469Google Scholar
  149. Rodríguez Couto S, Toca Herrera JL (2006) Industrial and biotechnological applications of laccases: a review. Biotechnol Adv 24(5):500–513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Rodríguez-Rodríguez CE, Castro-Gutiérrez V, Chin-Pampillo JS, Ruiz-Hidalgo K (2013) On-farm biopurification systems: role of white-rot fungi in depuration of pesticide-containing wastewaters. FEMS Microbiol Lett 345:1–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Rosales E, Pazos M, Ángeles Sanromán M (2013) Feasibility of solid-state fermentation using spent fungi-substrate in the biodegradation of PAHs. Clean Soil Air Water 41:610–615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Rubilar O, Diez MC, Gianfreda L (2008) Transformation of chlorinated phenolic compounds by white rot fungi. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 38(4):227–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Ruiz-Dueñas FJ, Morales M, Pérez-Boada M et al (2007) Manganese oxidation site in Pleurotus eryngii versatile peroxidase: a site-directed mutagenesis, kinetic, and crystallographic study. Biochemist 46(1):66–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Sakaki T, Yamamoto K, Ikushiro S (2013) Possibility of application of cytochrome P450 to bioremediation of dioxins. Biotechnol Appl Biochem 60:65–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Say R, Denizli AM, Arica MY (2001) Biosorption of cadmium (II), lead (II) and copper (II) with the filamentous fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Bioresour Technol 76(1):67–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Sayler GS, Ripp S (2000) Field applications of genetically engineered microorganisms for bioremediation processes. Curr Opin Biotechnol 11:286–289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Scheibner K, Hofrichler M (1998) Conversion of aminonitrotoluenes by fungal manganese peroxidase. J Basic Microbiol 1:51–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Sheng PX, Ting YP, Chen JP, Hong L (2004) Sorption of lead, copper, cadmium, zinc, and nickel by marine algal biomass: characterization of biosorptive capacity and investigation of mechanisms. J Colloid Interface Sci 275:131–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Silambarasan S, Abraham J (2013) Ecofriendly method for bioremediation of chlorpyrifos from agricultural soil by novel fungus Aspergillus terreus JAS1. Water Air Soil Pollut 224:1369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Singh MP, Vishwakarma SK, Srivastava AK (2013a) Bioremediation of Direct Blue 14 and extracellular ligninolytic enzyme production by white-rot fungi: Pleurotus sp. Biomed Res Int:180156Google Scholar
  161. Singh P, Raghukumar C, Parvatkar RR, Mascarenhas-Pereira MBL (2013b) Heavy metal tolerance in the psychrotolerant Cryptococcus sp. isolated from deep-sea sediments of the Central Indian Basin. Yeast 30:93–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Sinha A, Sinha R, Khare SK (2014) Heavy metal bioremediation and nanoparticle synthesis by metallophiles. In: Parmar N, Singh A (eds) Geomicrobiology and biogeochemistry, soil biology. Springer, Berlin, pp 101–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Sousa NR, Ramos MA, Marques APGC, Castro PML (2014) A genotype dependent-response to cadmium contamination in soil is displayed by Pinus pinaster in symbiosis with different mycorrhizal fungi. Appl Soil Ecol 76:7–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Strittmatter E, Liers C, Ullrich R, Wachter S, Hofrichter M, Plattner DA, Piontek K (2013) First crystal structure of a fungal high-redox potential dye-decolorizing peroxidase substrate interaction sites and long- range electron transfer. J Biol Chem 288:4095–4102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Syed K, Porollo A, Lam YW, Grimmet PE, Yadav JS (2013) CYP63A2, a catalytically versatile fungal P450 monooxygenase capable of oxidizing higher-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, and alkanes. Appl Environ Microbiol 79:2692–2702PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Tegli S, Cerbonesch M, Corsi M, Bonnanni M, Bianchini R (2013) Water recycle as a must: decolorization of textile wastewaters by plant-associated fungi. J Basic Microbiol 54:120–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Ten Have R, Teunissen PJM (2001) Oxidative mechanisms involved in lignin degradation by white-rot fungi. Chem Rev 101(11):3397–3413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Thapa B, Kumar AKC, Ghimire A (2012) A review on Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants in soil. Kathmandu University. J Sci Eng Technol 8(1):164–170Google Scholar
  169. Thatoi H, Behera BC, Mishra RR (2013) Ecological role and biotechnological potential of mangrove fungi: a review. Mycology 4:54–71Google Scholar
  170. Thippeswamy B, Shivakumar CK, Krishnappa M (2014) Studies on heavy metals detoxification biomarkers in fungal consortia. Caribb J Sci Technol 2:496–502Google Scholar
  171. Torres-Salas P, Mate DM, Ghazi I, Plou FJ, Ballesteros AO, Alcalde M (2013) Widening the pH activity profile of a fungal laccase by directed evolution. Chem Bio Chem 14:934–937PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Tsukihara T, Honda Y, Sakai R, Watanabe T, Watanabe T (2006) Exclusive overproduction of recombinant versatile peroxidase MnP2 by genetically modified white rot fungus, Pleurotus ostreatus. J Biotechnol 126(4):431–439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Ullah MA, Bedford CT, Evans CS (2000) Reactions of pentachlorophenol with laccase from Coriolus versicolor. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 53(2):230–234PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  174. US Congress (1991) Office of technology assessment. Bioremediation for marine oil spills. background paper, OTA-BP-O, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office pp. 32Google Scholar
  175. Vacondio B, Birolli WG, Ferreira IM, Seleghim MH, Goncalves S, Vasconcellos SP, Porto AL (2015) Biodegradation of pentachlorophenol by marine-derived fungus Trichoderma harzianum CBMAI 1677 isolated from ascidian Didemnun ligulum. Biocatal Agric Biotechnol 4:266–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Valentin L, Lu-Chau TA, Lopez C et al (2007) Biodegradation of dibenzothiophene, fluoranthene, pyrene and chrysene in a soil slurry reactor by the white-rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. BOS55. Process Biochem 42:641–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Van Dillewijn P, Caballero A, Paz JA, Gonzalez-Perez MM, Oliva JM, Ramos JL (2007) Bioremediation of 2,4,6 trinitrotoluene under field conditions. Environ Sci Technol 41:1378–1383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Verma AK, Raghukumar C, Parvatkar RR, Naik CG (2012) A rapid two-step bioremediation of the anthraquinone dye, Reactive Blue 4 by a marine-derived fungus. Water Air Soil Pollut 223:3499–3509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Vidali M (2001) Bioremediation. An overview. Pure App Chem 73(7):1163–1172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Vinichuk M, Mårtensson A, Ericsson T, Rosén K (2013) Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on 137Cs uptake by plants grown on different soils. J Environ Radioact 115:151–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Vishwanath B, Rajesh B, Janardhan A, Kumar AP, Narasimha G (2014) Fungal laccases and their applications in bioremediation. Enzyme Res:163242Google Scholar
  182. Wang C, Sun H, Li J et al (2009) Enzyme activities during degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium in soils. Chemosphere 77:733–738PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Wang CJ, Thiele S, Bollag J-M (2002) Interaction of 2,4,6-trinilrotoluene (TNT) and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene with humic monomers in the presence of oxidative enzymes. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 42(1):1–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Whiteley CG, Heron P, Pletschke B, Rose PD, Tshivhunge S, Van Jaarsveld FP, Whittington-Jones K (2002) The enzymology of sludge solubilisation utilizing sulphate reducing systems: Properties of proteases and phosphatases. Enzym Microb Technol 31(4):419–424Google Scholar
  185. Wong K-S, Cheung M-K, Au C-H, Kwan H-S (2013) A novel Lentinula edodes laccase and its comparative enzymology suggest guaiacol-based laccase engineering for bioremediation. PLoS One 8:e66426PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Wu J, Yu HQ (2007) Biosorption of 2,4-dichlorophenol by immobilized white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporiyum from aqueous solutions. Bioresour Technol 98(2):253–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Xie S, Sun S, Dai SY, Yuan JS (2013) Efficient coagulation of microalgae in cultures with filamentous fungi. Algal Res 2:28–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Xu F (1996) Catalysis of novel enzymatic iodide oxidation by fungal laccase. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 59(3):221–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Yadav A, Verma P, Kumar R, Kumar V, Kumar K (2017a) Current applications and future prospects of eco-friendly microbes. EU Voice 3:21–22Google Scholar
  190. Yadav AN (2018) Biodiversity and biotechnological applications of host-specific endophytic fungi for sustainable agriculture and allied sectors. Acta Sci Microbiol 1:01–05Google Scholar
  191. Yadav AN (2019) Endophytic fungi for plant growth promotion and adaptation under abiotic stress conditions. Acta Sci Agric 3:91–93Google Scholar
  192. Yadav AN, Kumar R, Kumar S, Kumar V, Sugitha T, Singh B, Chauhan VS, Dhaliwal HS, Saxena AK (2017b) Beneficial microbiomes: biodiversity and potential biotechnological applications for sustainable agriculture and human health. J Appl Biol Biotechnol 5:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Yadav AN, Mishra S, Singh S, Gupta A (2019a) Recent advancement in white biotechnology through fungi volume 1: diversity and enzymes perspectives. Springer, ChamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Yadav AN, Mishra S, Singh S, Gupta A (2019b) Recent advancement in white biotechnology through fungi. Volume 2: perspective for value-added products and environments. Springer, ChamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Yadav AN, Sachan SG, Verma P, Kaushik R, Saxena AK (2016) Cold active hydrolytic enzymes production by psychrotrophic Bacilli isolated from three sub-glacial lakes of NW Indian Himalayas. J Basic Microbiol 56:294–307PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  196. Yadav AN, Sachan SG, Verma P, Saxena AK (2015a) Prospecting cold deserts of north western Himalayas for microbial diversity and plant growth promoting attributes. J Biosci Bioeng 119:683–693PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  197. Yadav AN, Sachan SG, Verma P, Tyagi SP, Kaushik R, Saxena AK (2015b) Culturable diversity and functional annotation of psychrotrophic bacteria from cold desert of Leh Ladakh (India). World J Microbiol Biotechnol 31:95–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Yadav AN, Verma P, Kumar V, Sangwan P, Mishra S, Panjiar N, Gupta VK, Saxena AK (2018) Biodiversity of the genus penicillium in different habitats. In: Gupta VK, Rodriguez-Couto S (eds) New and future developments in microbial biotechnology and bioengineering, penicillium system properties and applications. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 3–18Google Scholar
  199. Yoshida S (1998) Reaction of manganese peroxidase of Bjerkandera adusta with synthetic lignin in acetone solution. J Wood Sci 44(6):486–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Zhang Q, Zeng G, Chen G, Yan M, Chen A, Du J et al (2015) The effect of heavy metal-induced oxidative stress on the enzymes in white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 175:1281–1293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Zhang Y, Xie J, Liu M, Tian Z, He Z, van Nostrand JD, Ren L, Zhou J, Yang M (2013) Microbial community functional structure in response to antibiotics in pharmaceutical wastewater treatment systems. Water Res 47:6298–6308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Neha Vishnoi
    • 1
  • Sonal Dixit
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Environmental SciencesBabasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar UniversityLucknowIndia
  2. 2.Department of BotanyUniversity of LucknowLucknowIndia

Personalised recommendations