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Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi-Mediated Mycoremediation of Saline Soil: Current Knowledge and Future Prospects

  • Dileep Kumar
  • Priyanka Priyanka
  • Pramendra Yadav
  • Anurag Yadav
  • Kusum Yadav
Chapter
Part of the Fungal Biology book series (FUNGBIO)

Abstract

Soil salinization is one of the major causes of declining agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, which is continuously increasing due to water evaporation and the use of saline water for irrigation. According to the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), it is estimated that approximately 20% of agricultural land and 50% of cropland in the world is facing salt stress. The continuous increase in soil salinity and increased demand for feeding rapidly increasing world population has created some serious agricultural issues that need a solution. Such solutions demand remediation of arable lands. For soil salinity, remediation of the development of salt-tolerating plant varieties was tried out, but its land-specific implementation and variety development is not suitable for developing countries. The mycoremediation could be used as a low-cost alternative for such countries in which a group of fungi called arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) is used. The AMF creates a symbiotic association with plant and assists to cope with soil salinity. It was observed that stress-adaptive mechanisms developed by plants are improved by AMF application. This chapter emphasizes the significance of mycoremediation on salt stress and their beneficial effects on plant growth and productivity. Many positive effects of AMF application show improved host plant nutrition; higher K+/Na+ ratio in plant tissues; and better osmotic adjustment by the accumulation of compatible solutes such as proline, glycine betaine, and soluble sugars. The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) plants show improved photosynthesis and water use efficiency under salt stress. The AM plants also enhance the activity of antioxidant enzymes to reduce the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the salinity. The AM symbiosis regulates the expression of the proline biosynthesis genes, late embryogenesis abundant protein genes, and aquaporins genes. Thus, it can be said that AMF symbiosis assists in host plants in the amelioration of salt stress at different levels.

Keywords

Abiotic stress Aquaporin Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) Cation antiporter Salinity Stress tolerance 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dileep Kumar
    • 1
  • Priyanka Priyanka
    • 1
  • Pramendra Yadav
    • 1
  • Anurag Yadav
    • 2
  • Kusum Yadav
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryUniversity of LucknowLucknowIndia
  2. 2.Department of MicrobiologyCollege of Basic Science and Humanities, Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural UniversityBanaskanthaIndia

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