Developmental Disorders

  • Giovanni GerbinoEmail author
  • Vito Chianca
  • Guglielmo Ramieri


Growth disturbances of the mandibular condyle—and its related structures—can be unilateral or bilateral, and they may affect both morphology of the face and functions of the stomatognathic system. These conditions arise from a variety of anomalies that present with different onsets and various morpho-functional characterization.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giovanni Gerbino
    • 1
    Email author
  • Vito Chianca
    • 2
  • Guglielmo Ramieri
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Surgical Sciences, Division of Maxillofacial SurgeryUniversity of TurinTurinItaly
  2. 2.IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico GaleazziMilanItaly

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