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Recent Developments in Glaucoma

  • Nathan M. Kerr
  • Keith BartonEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Glaucoma describes a group of conditions characterised by the progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells and their axons resulting in specific patterns of optic nerve head damage and visual field loss. Recent developments in imaging, visual field analysis, medical management, and surgery are permitting earlier diagnosis, better methods of assessing progression, and an enhanced ability to treat the disease. The introduction of new imaging protocols and techniques including Swept-Source optical coherence tomography (OCT), OCT angiography, and adaptive optics are providing better methods of visualization and structural assessment. The impact of testing frequency, thresholding algorithms, and new analytical techniques are improving the detection and monitoring of vision loss in glaucoma. Promising advancements in pharmacotherapy include the introduction of new chemical entities with novel mechanisms of action, new formulations, and new delivery mechanisms. Recent studies have shed light on the efficacy of laser peripheral iridotomy, clear lens extraction in the management of angle closure, and the role of primary trabeculectomy or tube surgery in patients with uncontrolled glaucoma. Lastly, new minimally invasive glaucoma procedures have been introduced that aim to lower intraocular pressure with a better safety profile and faster recovery than conventional glaucoma surgery. This chapter provides an overview of recent developments in the management of glaucoma.

Keywords

Glaucoma Optic disc imaging Perimetry Pharmacotherapy Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery 

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Royal Victorian Eye and Ear HospitalMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Centre for Eye Research AustraliaMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.Moorfields Eye HospitalLondonUK
  4. 4.UCL Institute of OphthalmologyLondonUK

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