Updates in Refractive Surgery

  • M. Joan T. D. Balgos
  • Jorge L. AlióEmail author


An improved understanding of ammetropia and its effect on visual quality have led to the latest developments in refractive surgery. Eyedrops for presbyopia target the crystalline lens to improve accommodation. Corneal inlays alter the curvature of the cornea to enhance vision at all distances. Diffractive and refractive multifocal intraocular lenses—which aim light at several discrete foci—and extended depth of focus intraocular lenses—which aim light in a continuous plane—improve vision at all distances. Accommodating intraocular lenses change power with accommodative effort. Corneal refractive surgeries like PRK and LASIK have been joined by Small Incision Lenticule Extraction (SMILE)—an all femtosecond laser flapless procedure. Phakic intraocular lens implantation is indicated for a wider range of refractive errors than corneal refractive procedures. These techniques allow for safer and more effective correction of refractive errors, and adequate monitoring of visual quality at all distances for new refractive surgery techniques.


Corneal inlays Multifocal intraocular lenses Accommodating intraocular lenses Corneal laser refractive surgery Phakic intraocular lenses 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.VissumAlicanteSpain
  2. 2.Division of OphthalmologyUniversidad Miguel HernándezAlicanteSpain

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