TADs in the Dromedary

  • Bernard FayeEmail author


The transboundary diseases in camel are mainly linked to the regional camel meat market from Sahelian countries (from Mauritania to Somalia) to the Arabian peninsula and North Africa. Indeed, the camel flow in relationship with this market is based on live animals’ export. Because the camel trade can be formal and informal with interconnections between both sectors and despite veterinary controls in the main exporting ports, some diseases such as Rift Valley fever (RVF), PPR-like disease, and MERS-coronavirus can spread from exporting countries to importing ones. However, the epidemiological status of these different diseases is quite variable and the transmission to humans in case of zoonosis (RVF and MERS-Cov) is not necessarily due to transboundary camel trade despite the impact of outbreak on the regional camel market. Globally, dromedary camel is less affected than other ruminants by infectious diseases under transboundary surveillance. But, because camel breeding is concentrated in countries where the disease surveillance systems often lack means, where the frontiers in desert areas are often “porous,” and where the herd mobility is difficult to assess, the risk of transboundary diseases’ transmission through borders is not negligible. Nowadays, the challenge of TADs control is limited to Rift Valley fever, but special attention must be paid to emerging diseases, including the recent discovery of prion disease in Algeria.


Camel diseases Meat market Live camels’ export Rift Valley fever MERS-coronavirus 


  1. Aklilu Y. An audit of the livestock marketing status in Kenya, Ethiopia and Sudan- Volume I, Pan African Program for the Control of Epizootics (PACE), Volume II- Issues and proposed measures, Pan African Program for the Control of Epizootics (PACE), Organization of African Unity. 2002.Google Scholar
  2. Al-Afaleq AI, Hussein MF. The status of Rift Valley fever in animals in Saudi Arabia: a mini review. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011;11(12):1513–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alary V, Faye B. The camel chains in East Africa- importance of gaps between the data and the apparent reality. J Camelid Sci. 2016;9:1–22.Google Scholar
  4. Al-Osail AM, Al-Wazzah MJ. The history and epidemiology of Middle East respiratory syndrome corona virus. Multidisc Resp Med. 2017;12:20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Antoine-Moussiaux N, Chevalier V, Peyre M, AbdoSalem Abdullah S, Bonnet P, Roger F. Economic impact of RVF outbreaks on trade within and between East Africa and the Middle East. GF-TADs (FAO/OIE) inter-regional conference on Rift Valley fever in the Middle East and the Horn of Africa: challenges, prevention and control. Mombasa: OIE; 2012.Google Scholar
  6. Aradaib AE, Erickson BR, Elageb RM, Khristova ML, Carroll SA, Elkhidir IM, Karsany ME, Karrar AE, Elbashir MI, Nichol ST. Rift Valley fever, Sudan, 2007 and 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):246–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Aubague S, Mannany AA, Grimaud P. Difficultés de transhumance des chameliers dans le Tchad central liées aux aléas climatiques. Science et changements planétaires / Sécheresse. 2011;22(1):25–32.Google Scholar
  8. Babelhadj B, Di Bari M, Pirisinu L, Chiappini B, Gaouar S, Riccardi G, Marcon S, Agrimi U, Nonno R, Vaccari G. Prion disease in dromedary camels, Algeria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(6):1029–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Belachew H. Assessment of livestock marketing in Ethiopia: constraints and possible intervention measures. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Livestock Marketing Department; Ethiopia. 2005.Google Scholar
  10. Djama M. Producteurs pastoraux et commerce international- l’évolution des rapports marchands en pays Nord-Somali. In: Bourgeot A, editor. Horizons nomades en Afrique sahélienne- Sociétés, développement et démocratie. Karthala: Université de Niamey; 1999. p. 339–53.Google Scholar
  11. El-Mamy OB, Baba MO, Barry Y, Isselmou K, Dia ML, Hampate B, Diallo MY, El Kory MOB, Diop M, Lo MM, Thiongane Y, Bengoumi M, Puech L, Plee L, Claes F, De La Rocque S, Doumbia B. Unexpected Rift Valley fever outbreak, Northern Mauritania. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1894–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. El Mamy OB, Kane Y, El Arbi AS, Barry Y, Bernard C, Lancelot R, Cêtre-Sossah C. L’épidémie de fièvre de la Vallée du Rift en Mauritanie en 2012. Rev Afr Santé Prod Anim. 2014;12(3–4):169–73.Google Scholar
  13. Faye B. Systèmes pastoraux, agro-pastoraux et agricoles d'Ethiopie. In: Chantal B-P, Jean B, editors. Dynamique des systèmes agraires. A la croisée des parcours. Pasteurs, éleveurs, cultivateurs, vol. 1994. Paris: ORSTOM; 1994. p. 269–87.Google Scholar
  14. Faye B. Surveillance and control procedures for camel diseases. Workshop on the surveillance and control of camels and wildlife diseases in the Middle East. Regional workshop OIE. Sanaa (Yemen). 2003, March:10–2.Google Scholar
  15. Faye B. Camel farming sustainability: the challenges of the camel farming system in the XXIth century. J Sustain Dev. 2013;6(12):74–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Faye B. Projet régional d’appui au pastoralisme au sahel (PRAPS)-Analyse de la filière Cameline en Mauritanie. Rapport de mission CIRAD-ES/PRAPS, Montpellier, 45 p. 2016.Google Scholar
  17. Faye B, Bonnet P. Camel sciences and economy in the world: current situation and perspectives. In: Proc. 3rd ISOCARD conference. Keynote presentations. 29th January – 1st February 2012, Mascate (Sultanate of Oman); 2012. p. 2–15.Google Scholar
  18. Faye B, Chaibou M, Vias G. Integrated impact of climate change and socioeconomic development on the evolution of camel farming systems. Br J Environ Clim Change. 2012;2(3):227–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Faye B, Abdelhadi O, Raiymbek G, Kadim I. Filière viande de chameau et critère de qualité. Evolution du marché, perspectives de développement et qualité de la viande de chameau. Viandes & Produits carnés. VPC-2013-29-6-2, 1–8. 2013.Google Scholar
  20. Fedoul AA. Analyse de la filière viande cameline en Arabie Saoudite. Mémoire de stage « Ingénierie et Gestion des Territoires (IGT) », Gestion Agricole et territoires. France: CIHEAM/Université de Montpellier; 2014. 67 p.Google Scholar
  21. Gossner C, Danielson N, Gervelmeyer A, Berthe F, Faye B, Kaasik-Aaslav K, Adlhoch C, Zeller H, Penttinen P, Coulombier D. Human–dromedary camel interactions and the risk of acquiring zoonotic Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection. Zoonose Public Hlth. 2016;63:1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hassan OA, Ahlm C, Evander M. A need for one health approach-lessons learned from outbreaks of Rift Valley fever in Saudi Arabia and Sudan. Infect Ecol Epidemiol. 2014;4:1–8.Google Scholar
  23. Hemida MG, Chu DKW, Poon LLM, Perera RAPM, Alhammadi MA, Ng H-Y. MERS coronavirus in dromedary camel herd, Saudi Arabia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20:1231–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kadim I, Mahgoub O, Purchas RW. A review of the growth, and of the carcass and meat quality characteristics of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedaries). Meat Sci. 2008;80:555–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Khalafalla AI, Intisar KS, Ali YH, Amira MH, Abu Obeida A, Gasim M, Zakia A. Morbillivirus infection of camels in eastern Sudan. New emerging fatal and contagious disease. Proceeding of the International Conference on Infectious Emerging Disease. AlAain, UAE, 26th March–April 1; 2005.Google Scholar
  26. Khalafalla AI, Saeed IK, Ali YH, Abdurrahman MB, Kwiatek O, Libeau G, Obeida AA, Abba Z. An outbreak of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in camels in the Sudan. Acta Trop. 2010;116(2):161–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Khorchani T, Hammadi M, Moslah M. Artificial nursing of camel calves: an effective technique for calf’s safeguard and improving herd productivity. In: Faye B, Esenov P, editors. Proceedings of the international workshop, “Desertification combat and food safety: the added value of camel producers”, Ashkhabad (Turkmenistan), 19–22 April 2004. In: Vol. 362 NATO sciences series, life and behavioral sciences. Amsterdam: IOS; 2005. p. 177–82.Google Scholar
  28. Kurtu MY. An assessment of the productivity for meat and carcass yield of camel (Camelus dromedarius) and the consumption of camel meat in the eastern region of Ethiopia. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2004;36:65–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Little PD, Teka T, Azeze A. Research methods on cross-border livestock trade in the horn of Africa: further observations. Research report of the broadening access to markets and input systems-collaborative research support program (BASIS-CRSP) and OSSREA project on cross-border trade and food security in the horn of Africa. 1998, Oct. p. 14.Google Scholar
  30. MacKay IM, Arden KE. Middle East respiratory syndrome: an emerging coronavirus infection tracked by the crowd. Virus Res. 2015;202:60–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mankor A, Koussou MO. Etude du sous-secteur camelin du Tchad. Rapport provisoire. N’Djamena, Tchad: FAO; 2015. 101 p.Google Scholar
  32. Miguel E, Perera R, Baubekova A, Chevalier V, Faye B, Akhmetsadykov N, Chun Yin N, Roger F, Peiris M. Absence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in camelids, Kazakhstan, 2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(3):555–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pratt AN, Bonnet P, Jabbar M, Ehui S, de Haan C. Benefits and costs of compliance of sanitary regulations in livestock markets: the case of Rift Valley fever in the Somali region of Ethiopia. International livestock research institute. Nairobi, Kenya: The World Bank; 2005.Google Scholar
  34. Raiymbek G, Kadim I, Konuspayeva G, Mahgoub O, Serikbayeva A, Faye B. Discriminant amino-acid components of Bactrian (Camelus bactrianus) and dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) meat. J Food Compos Anal. 2015;41:194–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Renard JF. Programme de développement d’une aptitude au commerce. Mission d’identification sur les filières animales (TF/MAU/04/001/11–53), Mauritanie, UNIDO. Rapport de mission CIRAD, Montpellier, 50 p. 2005.Google Scholar
  36. Roger F, Diallo A, Yigezu LM, Hurard C, Libeau G, Mebratu GY, Faye B. Investigations of a new pathological condition of camels in Ethiopia. J Camel Pract Res. 2000;7(2):163–6.Google Scholar
  37. Roger F, Gebre Yesus M, Libeau G, Diallo A, Yigezu L, Yilma T. Detection of antibodies of rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants viruses (Paramyxoviridae, Morbillivirus) during a new epizootic disease in Ethiopian camels (Camelus dromedarius). Rev Vet Med. 2001;152:265–8.Google Scholar
  38. Sabir JSM, Lam TTY, Ahmed MMM, Li L, Shen Y, Abo-Aba SEM, Qureshi MI, Abu-Zeid M, Zhang Y, Khiyami MA. Co-circulation of three camel coronavirus species and recombination of MERS-CoVs in Saudi Arabia. Science. 2016;351(6268):81–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sayed-Ahmed M, Nomier Y, Shoeib SM. Epidemic situation of Rift Valley fever in Egypt and Saudi Arabia. J Dairy Vet Anim Res. 2015;2(3):00034. Scholar
  40. Younan M, Bornstein S, Gluecks I. MERS and the dromedary camel trade between Africa and the Middle East. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2016;48(6):1277–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développementMontpellierFrance

Personalised recommendations