Diplomatic tensions between England, France and America frame the earliest examples of Yankee awareness of the “Persian religion” and its latter-day adherents. The period begins with the publication of Anquetil-Duperron’s French translation of Avestan and Middle Persian Zoroastrian texts, which provided the first European access to ancient Indo-Iranian languages. This work, recommended by Benjamin Franklin in London to a colleague in Rhode Island, galvanized the process of rounding out the intellectual map to the other, “eastern,” half of the world. After the formal recognition of the United States as an independent country in 1783, American ships began to sail to India. An actual meeting between a Parsi broker and Yankee merchant mariner is first documented in 1788. Subsequent correspondence, bills of sale and newspaper adverts record the establishing of business relations between Bombay and New England that soon extended to China.