Advertisement

Looking In: Group Dynamics of the Canadian Right-Wing Extremist Movement

  • Barbara PerryEmail author
  • Ryan Scrivens
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Hate Studies book series (PAHS)

Abstract

Despite the Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS)’s recent concern with the growing threat from right-wing extremists (RWEs) nationwide, we have little contemporary scholarship on the RWE movement in Canada and fewer attempts to systematically analyse their ideologies and activities. Drawing on the three-year study described in Chapter  2, involving interviews with Canadian law enforcement officials, community organizations and right-wing activists, this chapter examines the endogenous factors that facilitate and inhibit the RWE movement in Canada. Findings suggest that strengths and weaknesses of the groups themselves can be exploited as a means of debilitating them.

References

  1. Adams, J., & Roscigno, V. (2005). White Supremacists, Oppositional Culture and the World Wide Web. Social Forces, 84(2), 759–778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anti-Defamation League. (1996). Hate Groups in America. New York: ADL.Google Scholar
  3. Anti-Racist Canada. (2007). A Neo-Nazi Group in Alberta: The Aryan Guard. Retrieved from http://anti-racistcanada.blogspot.ca/2007/12/aryan-guard-members-and-associates.html.
  4. Anti-Racist Canada. (2014). A History of Violence: 1970–2014. Retrieved from http://anti-racistcanada.blogspot.ca/2011/10/history-of-violence-1989-2011.html.
  5. Back, L. (2002). Aryans Reading Adorno: Cyber-Culture and Twenty-First Century Racism. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 25(4), 628–651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baron, S. (1997). Canadian Male Street Skinheads: Street Gang or Street Terrorists? Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 34(2), 125–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barrett, S. R. (1987). Is God a Racist? The Right Wing in Canada. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bell, S. (2011, August 6). A Hater Among Us. National Post. Retrieved from http://news.nationalpost.com/news/canada/a-hater-among-us.
  9. Black, D. (2004). Terrorism as Social Control. In M. Deflem (Ed.), Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism: Criminological Perspectives (pp. 9–18). Boston: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Blais, T. (2010, May 13). Racist Man Bear-Sprayed Student. Canoe. Retrieved from http://cnews.canoe.ca/CNEWS/Crime/2010/05/13/13929911.html.
  11. Boutilier, A. (2015, March 15). CSIS Highlights White Supremacist Threat Ahead of Radical Islam. Toronto Star. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com/news/canada/2015/03/15/csis-highlights-white-supremacist-threat-ahead-of-radical-islam.html.
  12. Bowman-Grieve, L. (2009). Exploring “Stormfront:” A Virtual Community of the Radical Right. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 32(11), 989–1007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Caiani, M., & Kröll, P. (2014). The Transnationalization of the Extreme Right and the Use of the Internet. International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice, 39(4), 331–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Capehard, J. (2015, June 19). Dylan Roof: ‘White Supremacist Lone Wolf’. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/post-partisan/wp/2015/06/19/dylann-roof-white-supremacist-lone-wolf/?utm_term=.13d019dc9898.
  15. CBC News. (1998, December 1). Soldiers Blame Airborne for Robbery. Retrieved from https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/soldier-blames-airborne-for-robbery-1.166500.
  16. CBC News. (2007, February 15). Ernst Zundel Sentenced to 5 Years for Holocaust Denial. Retrieved from http://www.cbc.c/new/worl/ernst-zundel-sentenced-to-5-years-for-holocaust-denial-1.659372.
  17. CBC News. (2015, June 9). Norman Raddatz Had Extensive Police File for Hate Crimes. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/2015/06/09/edmonton-police-officer-k_n_7540386.html.
  18. CBC News Calgary. (2010, November 8). Calgary Anti-Racism Activists’ Home Invaded. Retrieved from https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/calgary/calgary-anti-racism-activists-home-invaded-1.902197.
  19. Cotter, J. M. (1999). Sounds of Hate: White Power Rock and Roll and the Neo-Nazi Skinhead Subculture. Terrorism and Political Violence, 11(2), 111–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dyck, K. (2015). The (Un)Popularity of White-Power Music. In S. A. Wilson (Ed.), Music at the Extremes: Essays on Sounds Outside the Mainstream (pp. 157–177). Jefferson, NC: McFarland.Google Scholar
  21. Farnsworth, C. (1993, May 17). Canada Investigates Reported Ties of Rightist Militants and Military. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/1993/05/17/world/canada-investigates-reported-ties-of-rightist-militants-and-military.html.
  22. Feldman, M. (2012, August 27). Viewpoint: Killer Breivik’s Links with Far Right. BBC News. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-19366000.
  23. Freilich, J., Chermak, S., & Caspi, D. (2009). Critical Events in the Life Trajectories of Domestic Extremist White Supremacist Groups: A Case Study Analysis of Four Violent Organizations. Criminology and Public Policy, 8(3), 497–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Futrell, R., Simi, P., & Gottschalk, S. (2006). Understanding Music in Movements: The White Power Music Scene. The Sociological Quarterly, 47(2), 275–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gunlock, B. (2013, March 12). A New Look at Calgary’s Neo-Nazi Movement. Vice News. Retrieved from https://www.vice.com/en_ca/article/exkmvz/a-new-look-at-calgarys-neo-nazi-movement.
  26. Hogan, M. (2012, August 6). Alleged Sikh Temple Shooter Was Frontman for White-Power Hardcore Band. Spin. Retrieved from http://www.spin.com/2012/08/alleged-sikh-temple-shooter-was-frontman-white-power-hardcore-band/.
  27. Hong, G. (2014, January 17). We Interviewed the White Supremacist Running for Mayor of Toronto. Vice News. Retrieved from http://www.vice.com/en_ca/read/we-interviewed-the-white-supremacist-running-for-mayor-of-toronto.
  28. Humphrey, A. (2014, July 29). Canadian Nazi Party Founder Running for Office in Ontario Township. National Post. Retrieved from http://news.nationalpost.com/2014/07/29/canadian-nazi-party-founder-running-for-office-in-ontario-township/.
  29. Johnson, D. (2012). Right-Wing Resurgence: How a Domestic Terrorist Threat is Being Ignored. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  30. Kim, T. K. (2006, April 19). A Look at White Power Music Today. Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved from https://www.splcenter.org/fighting-hate/intelligence-report/2006/look-white-power-music-today.
  31. Kinsella, W. (2001). Web of Hate: Inside Canada’s Far Right Network. Toronto: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  32. Lauder, M. A. (2002). The Far Rightwing Movement in Southwest Ontario: An Exploration of Issues, Themes, and Variations. The Guelph and District Multicultural Centre.Google Scholar
  33. Macklin, G. (2013). ‘Onward Blackshirts!’ Music and the British Union of Fascists. Patterns of Prejudice, 47(4–5), 430–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Martin, K. (2010, May 19). Purported Neo-Nazi Admits to Making Explosives. QMI Agency. Retrieved from http://cnews.canoe.co/CNEW/Crim/201/0/1/13995161.html?cidDrssnewscanada.
  35. Mississauga News. (2014, September 17). Paul Fromm: Mississauga Mayoral Candidate. Retrieved from December 28, 2015. http://www.mississauga.com/news-story/4865617-paul-fromm-mississauga-mayoral-candidate.
  36. Ottawa Citizen. (2006, April 18). Murder Charges Laid in Death of Ottawa Man. Retrieved from http://www.canada.com/ottawacitizen/news/story.html?id=a9f4eaa8-1f44-4217-b988-8ca489147158&k=38214.
  37. Parent, R., & Ellis, J. (2014). Right Wing Extremism in Canada (No. 14-03). Vancouver: Canadian Network for Research on Terrorism, Security and Society.Google Scholar
  38. Perry, B., & Scrivens, R. (2016). Uneasy Alliances: A Look at the Right-Wing Extremist Movement in Canada. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 39(9), 819–841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Perry, B., & Scrivens, R. (2015). Right-Wing Extremism in Canada: An Environmental Scan. Ottawa, ON: Public Safety Canada.Google Scholar
  40. Pugliese, D. (2012, June 17). Canadian Forces Warned of Possible Infiltration by White Supremacist Group. Ottawa Citizen. Retrieved from http://www.ottawacitizen.com/life/Canadian+Forces+warned+possible+infiltration+white+supremacist+group/6801966/story.html.
  41. Ridgeway, J. (1995). Blood in the Face. New York: Thunder’s Mouth Press.Google Scholar
  42. Ross, J. I. (1992). Contemporary Radical Right Wing Violence in Canada: A Quantitative Analysis. Terrorism and Political Violence, 4(3), 72–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Scrivens, R., Davies, G., & Frank, R. (2018). Measuring the Evolution of Radical Right-Wing Posting Behaviors Online. Deviant Behavior. Ahead of Print, pp. 1–17.Google Scholar
  44. Shaffer, R. (2013). The Sound of Neo-Fascism: Youth and Music in the National Front. Patterns of Prejudice, 17(4–5), 458–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sterman, D. (2013, April 24). The Greater Danger: Military-Trained Right-Wing Extremists. The Atlantic. Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/national/archive/2013/04/the-greater-danger-military-trained-right-wing-extremists/275277/.
  46. Stop Racism and Hate Collective. (2015). One People’s Project: Aryan Guard Knew About Kyle McKee’s Involvement in Pipebomb Attack. Retrieved from http://www.stopracism.ca/content/one-peoples-project-aryan-guard-knew-about-kyle-mckees-involvement-pipebomb-attack.
  47. Talty, S. (1996, February 25). The Method of a Neo-Nazi Mogul. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/1996/02/25/magazine/the-method-of-a-neo-nazi-mogul.html?pagewanted=all.
  48. Tanner, S., & Campana, A. (2014). The Process of Radicalization: Right Wing Skinheads in Quebec (No. 14-07). Vancouver: Canadian Network for Research on Terrorism, Security and Society.Google Scholar
  49. Totten, M. (2014). Gang Life: 10 of the Toughest Tell Their Stories. Toronto: James Lorimer & Company.Google Scholar
  50. Whitworth, S. (2004). Men, Militarism and UN Peacekeeping: A Gendered Analysis. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  51. Wittmeier, B. (2012, December 9). Money, Drugs and Violence: The Evolution of White Boy Posse—In the Wake of Recent High-Profile Killings, Experts Look at Criminal Gang Behaviour. Edmonton Journal. Retrieved from http://www.edmontonjournal.com/news/Money+drugs+violence+evolution+White+Posse/7673689/story.html.
  52. Young, K., & Craig, L. (1997). Beyond White Pride: Identity, Meaning and Contradiction in the Canadian Skinhead Subculture. The Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 34(2), 175–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Social Science and HumanitiesUniversity of Ontario Institute of TechnologyOshawaCanada
  2. 2.School of Criminal JusticeMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA

Personalised recommendations