Flow Perturbation Experiments

  • Branko Furst


On account of the relative ease of accessibility, the absence of valves, and lack of innervation, the early embryo circulation is a suitable model for addressing the question about the primacy of the central versus the peripheral circulation. In comparison to a horizontally placed animal, or a vertically oriented human circulatory system, embryonic and extra-embryonic circulations occur on a single plane, rendering the force of gravity almost negligible. Microsphere occlusion studies demonstrate the importance of blood flow in the morphogenesis of the heart chambers, valves, and overall morphology. Occlusion of the vitelline veins similarly impairs flow dynamics and adversely affects cardiac morphogenesis.


Embryo heart Flow perturbation Microspheres Vitelline vein ligation Cardiac morphogenesis Peripheral circulation 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Branko Furst
    • 1
  1. 1.Professor of AnesthesiologyAlbany Medical CollegeAlbanyUSA

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