Advertisement

The Enemy Lurking Behind the Front: Controlling Sex in the German Forces Sent to Eastern and Western Europe, 1914–1918

  • Lisa M. Todd
Chapter

Abstract

Sexual encounters between soldiers and civilians on the fighting fronts became frequent and sustained as the German Army shifted from expedition/invasion to occupation/colonization. The tendency among all authorities was to equate “foreignness,” female sexual promiscuity and threats of venereal disease to military efficiency. Women who could infect soldiers and remove them from the fighting for medical treatment were seen as analogs to snipers and saboteurs, an enemy “lurking” behind the lines. Even worse, they could send the infections homeward with soldiers on leave. This chapter discusses both the issues raised by soldier–civilian sexual liaisons away from the homeland and the efforts by military and civilian authorities to deal with them.

Bibliography

Archival Sources

  1. Archiv des Diakonischen Werkes der Evangelischen Kirche in Deutschland (ADW).Google Scholar
  2. Bayerisches Haupstaatsarchiv, Abteilung IV – Kriegsarchiv München (KAM).Google Scholar
  3. Bundesarchiv Berlin-Lichterfeld(BAB).Google Scholar
  4. Landesarchiv Berlin – Helene-Lange Archiv (LAB HLA).Google Scholar
  5. Staatsbibliothek München, Handschriftenabteilung.Google Scholar

Other Sources

  1. Audoin-Rouzeau, Stéphane. L’enfant de l’ennemi (1914–1918): Viol, avortement, infanticide pendant la Grande Guerre. Paris: Aubier, 1995.Google Scholar
  2. Becker, Annette. “Life in an Occupied Zone: Lille, Roubaix, Tourcoing.” In Facing Armageddon: The First World War Experience, ed. H. Cecil and P. Liddell, 630–41. London: Cooper Press, 1996.Google Scholar
  3. Becker, Annette. Les Cicatrices Rouges 14–18: France et Belgiques occupies. Paris: Fayard, 2010.Google Scholar
  4. Belsen, Dorothea von. “Report on Moral Standards in Germany.” Unpublished Transcript, 5–6. Landesarchiv Berlin, Helene-Lange Archiv (LAB HLA), Microfilm Reel 3400, Gegen die Prostitution, für sittlich gefährdete Mädchen und Frauen, Schutz der Jugend.Google Scholar
  5. Bernstein, Laurie. Sonja’s Daughters: Prostitutes and Their Regulation in Imperial Russia. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995.Google Scholar
  6. Chickering, Roger. The Great War and Urban Life in Germany: Freiburg, 1914–1918. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.Google Scholar
  7. Chickering, Roger. Imperial Germany and the Great War, 1914–1918. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.Google Scholar
  8. Chickering, Roger, and Stig Förster, eds. Great War, Total War: Combat and Mobilization on the Western Front, 1914–1918. Washington, DC: German Historical Institute, 2000.Google Scholar
  9. Clark, Anna. Desire: A History of European Sexuality. New York: Routledge, 2012.Google Scholar
  10. Corbin, Alain. Women for Hire: Prostitution and Sexuality in France after 1850. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.Google Scholar
  11. Crouthamel, Jason. An Intimate History of the Front: Masculinity, Sexuality, and German Soldiers in the First World War. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.Google Scholar
  12. Daniel, Ute. The War from Within: German Working-Class Women in the First World War. Oxford: Berg Publishers, 1997.Google Scholar
  13. Darrow, Margaret. French Women and the French World War: War Stories of the Home Front. Oxford: Berg Publishers, 2000.Google Scholar
  14. De Schaepdrijver, Sophie. La Belgique et la Première Guerre mondiale. Brussels: Peter Lang, 2004.Google Scholar
  15. Dickinson, Edward Ross. Sex, Freedom, and Power in Imperial Germany, 1880–1914. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014.Google Scholar
  16. Fell, Alison S., and Christine Hallett. First World War Nursing: New Perspectives. New York: Routledge, 2013.Google Scholar
  17. Feltman, Brian. The Stigma of Surrender: German Prisoners, British Captors, and Manhood in the Great War and Beyond. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2015.Google Scholar
  18. Fischer, H. C., and E. X. Dubois. Sexual Life During the World War. London: Francis Aldor, 1937.Google Scholar
  19. Galzow (Criminal Commissioner). “Die Deutsche Sittenpolizei in Belgien.” Deutschen Strafrechts Zeitung 6, no. 56 (1916). Reprinted in Archiv für Frauenkunde und Eugenetik, September 10, 1916, 278–79.Google Scholar
  20. German Atrocities in France: A Translation of the Official Report of the French Commission. London: The Daily Chronicle, 1914.Google Scholar
  21. Gibson, Craig. Behind the Front: British Soldiers and French Civilians, 1914–1918. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014.Google Scholar
  22. Gibson, Mary. Prostitution and the State in Italy, 1860–1915. New Brunswick, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1986.Google Scholar
  23. Gillis, John R., Louise Tilly, and David Levine. The European Experience of Declining Fertility, 1850–1970: The Quiet Revolution. Oxford: Blackwell, 1992.Google Scholar
  24. Great Britain Committee on Alleged German Outrages. The Truth about German Atrocities—Founded on the Report of the Committee on Alleged German Outrages. London: Parliamentary Recruiting Committee, 1915.Google Scholar
  25. Gregory, Adrian. “A Clash of Cultures: The British Press and the Opening of the Great War.” In A Call to Arms: Propaganda, Public Opinion and Newspapers in the Great War, ed. Troy R. E. Paddock, 15–50. Westport: Praeger Publishers, 2004.Google Scholar
  26. Gullace, Nicoletta F. “Sexual Violence and Family Honour: British Propaganda and International Law during the First World War.” American Historical Review 102, no. 3 (1997): 714–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gullace, Nicoletta F. The Blood of Our Sons: Men, Women, and the Renegotiation of British Citizenship During the Great War. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.Google Scholar
  28. Gullace, Nicoletta F. “Representations of the ‘Hun’ in Britain, North America, Australia and Beyond.” In Picture This: World War I Posters and Visual Culture, ed. Pearl James, 61–78. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2010.Google Scholar
  29. Hall, Leslie A. “‘War Always Brings it on’: War, STDs, the Military and Civilian Population in Britain, 1850–1950.” In Medicine and Modern Warfare, ed. Roger Cooter, Mark Harrison, and Steve Sturdy, 205–33. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2000.Google Scholar
  30. Hallett, Christine. Containing Trauma: Nursing Work in the First World War. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2010.Google Scholar
  31. Harris, Ruth. “The Child of the Barbarian: Rape, Race, and Nationalism in France during World War One.” Past and Present 141, no. 1 (1993): 170–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Harris, Victoria. Selling Sex in the Reich: Prostitutes in German Society, 1914–1945. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.Google Scholar
  33. Herbert, Ulrich. A History of Foreign Labor in Germany, 1880–1980: Seasonal Workers/Forced Laborers/Guest Workers. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1990.Google Scholar
  34. Herwig, Holger. The First World War: Germany and Austria-Hungary, 1914–1918. 2nd ed. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2014.Google Scholar
  35. Herzog, Dagmar, ed. Brutality and Desire. War and Sexuality in Europe’s Twentieth Century. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.Google Scholar
  36. Hinz, Uta. Gefangen im Groβen Krieg. Kriegsgefangenschaft in Deutschland, 1914–1921. Essen: Klartext-Verlags, 2006.Google Scholar
  37. Hirschfeld, Magnus. Sittengeschichte des Ersten Weltkrieges. Hanau am Main: Verlag Karl Schustek, 1929.Google Scholar
  38. Hirschfeld, Magnus. The Sexual History of the World War. New York: Cadillac Publishing, 1946.Google Scholar
  39. Horne, John, and Alan Kramer. German Atrocities, 1914: A History of Denial. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001.Google Scholar
  40. Hull, Isabel. Absolute Destruction: Military Culture and the Practices of War in Imperial Germany. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2005.Google Scholar
  41. Jones, Heather. Violence Against Prisoners of War in First World War Britain, France and Germany, 1914–1920. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.Google Scholar
  42. Kampf, Antje. “Controlling Male Sexuality: Combating Venereal Disease in the New Zealand Military During Two World Wars.” Journal of the History of Sexuality 17, no. 2 (May 2008): 235–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Köhler, Ludwig von. Die Staatsverwaltigung der besetzten Gebiete. Bd. 1 Belgien. Wirtschafts - und Sozialgeschichte des Weltkrieges. Berlin: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1927.Google Scholar
  44. Köppen, Edlef. Higher Command. New York: J. Cape and H. Smith, 1931. Translation of Heeresbericht. Berlin-Grunewald: Horen Verlag, 1930.Google Scholar
  45. Krüger, Gesine. Kriegsbewältigung und Geschichtsbewusstein: Realität, Deutung und Verarbeitung des deutschen Kolonialkriegs in Namibia 1904 bis 1907. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1999.Google Scholar
  46. Kühne, Thomas, and Benjamin Ziemann. Was ist Militärgeschichte? Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöningh, 2000.Google Scholar
  47. Kundrus, Birthe. Kriegerfrauen: Familienpolitik und Geschlechterverhältnisse im Ersten und Zweiten Weltkrieg. Hamburg: Hans Christians Verlag, 1995.Google Scholar
  48. Kuss, Susanne. German Colonial Wars and the Context of Military Violence. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2017.Google Scholar
  49. Liulevicius, Vejas G. War Land on the Eastern Fron: Culture, National Identity, and German Occupation in World War I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.Google Scholar
  50. Liulevicius, Vejas G. The German Myth of the East: 1800 to the Present. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.Google Scholar
  51. Maß, Sandra. Weiβe Helden, schwarze Krieger: Zur Geschichte kolonialer Männlichkeit in Deutschland, 1918–1964. Köln: Böhlau, 2006.Google Scholar
  52. Majerus, Benoît. “La prostitution à Bruxelles pendant la Grande Guerre: contrôle et pratique.” Crime, History and Society 7, no. 1 (2003): 1–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Majerus, Benoît. “Sex in the city. La prostitution à Bruxelles pendant la Grande Guerre (1914–1918).” Cahiers de la Fonderie 32 (2005): 51–54.Google Scholar
  54. Majerus, Benoît. Occupations et logiques policières: La police bruxelloise en 1914–1918 et 1940–1945. Brussels: Académie royale de Belgique, Classe des Lettres, 2007.Google Scholar
  55. Makepeace, Clare. “Punters and Their Prostitutes: British Soldiers, Masculinity and Maisons Tolérées in the First World War.” In What Is Masculinity? Historical Dynamics from Antiquity, ed. John Arnold and Sean Brady, 413–30. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Makepeace, Clare. “Male Heterosexuality and Prostitution During the Great War.” Cultural and Social History 9, no. 1 (2012): 65–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Marks, Sally. “Black Watch on the Rhine: A Study in Propaganda, Prejudice and Prurience.” European Studies Review 13, no. 3 (1983): 297–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Michl, Susanne. Im Dienste des “Volkskörpers”: deutsche und französische Ärzte im Ersten Weltkrieg. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2007.Google Scholar
  59. Nelson, Robert R. German Soldier Newspapers of the First World War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.Google Scholar
  60. Orzoff, Andrea. “The Empire Without Qualities: Austro-Hungarian Newspapers and the Outbreak of War in 1914.” In A Call to Arms: Propaganda, Public Opinion, and Newspapers in the Great War, edited by Troy R. E. Paddock, 161–98. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2004.Google Scholar
  61. Paddock, Troy R. E. “German Propaganda: The Limits of Gerechtigkeit” In A Call to Arms: Propaganda, Public Opinion and Newspapers in the Great War, ed. Troy R. E. Paddock. Westport: Praeger Publishers, 2004.Google Scholar
  62. Proctor, Tammy. Civilians in a World at War, 1914–1918. New York: New York University Press, 2010.Google Scholar
  63. Quine, Maria Sophia. Population Politics in Twentieth-Century Europe. London: University of London Press, 1996.Google Scholar
  64. Rachamimov, Iris. POWs and the Great War: Captivity on the Eastern Front. Oxford: Berg Publishers, 2002.Google Scholar
  65. Rhoades, Michelle. “Renegotiating French Masculinity: Medicine and Venereal Disease During the Great War.” French Historical Studies 29, no. 2 (2006): 293–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Richter-Nürnberg, Karl. Weiße Kreuz. Zeitschrift 3. Förderung sittlicher Reinheit unter jungen Männern aller Berufsstände Organ des Sittlichkeits-Bundes vom Weißen Kreuz für Deutschland und Osterreich 22, no. 4 (October 15, 1915): 66–69.Google Scholar
  67. Roberts, Mary Louise. What Soldiers Do: Sex and the American GI in World War II France. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013.Google Scholar
  68. Roolf, Christoph. “General Gouvernement Belgien.” In Online-International Encyclopedia of the First World War, edited by Ute Daniel et al., Last Updated April 23, 2015,  https://doi.org/10.15463/ie1418.10871.
  69. Roos, Julia. “Women’s Rights, Nationalist Anxiety, and the ‘Moral’ Agenda in the Early Weimar Republic: Revisiting the ‘Black Horror’ Campaign against France’s African Occupation Troops.” Central European History 42, no. 3 (2009): 473–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Roos, Julia. “Nationalism, Racism and Propaganda in Early Weimar Germany: Contradictions in the Campaign against the ‘Black Horror on the Rhine’.” German History 30, no. 1 (2012): 45–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Roos, Julia. “Racist Hysteria to Pragmatic Rapprochement? The German Debate About Rhenish ‘Occupation Children,’ 1920–1930.” Contemporary European History 22, no. 2 (2013): 155–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sattler, Moritz. “Zur Bekämpfung der Geschlechtskrankheiten im Heere.” Der Militärarzt. Zeitschrift für das Gesamte Sanitätswesen der Armeen 50, no. 24 (October 28, 1916): 560–62.Google Scholar
  73. Sauerteig, Lutz. “Sex, Medicine and Morality During the First World War.” In War, Medicine and Modernity, edited by Mark Harrison and Steven Sturdy Roger Cooter. Stroud: Sutton Publishing, 1998.Google Scholar
  74. Sauerteig, Lutz. Krankheit, Sexualität, Gesellschaft. Geschlectskrankheiten und Gesundheitspolitik in Deutschland im 19. und frühen 20. Jahrhundert. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1999.Google Scholar
  75. Schönberger, Bianca. “Motherly Heroines and Adventurous Girls: Red Cross Nurses and Women Army Auxiliaries in the First World War.” In Home/Front: The Military, War, and Gender in Twentieth-Century Germany, edited by Karen Hagemann and Stefanie Schüler-Springorum, 87–113. New York: Berg, 2002.Google Scholar
  76. Schulte, Regina. “The Sick Warrior’s Sister: Nursing During the First World War.” In Gender Relations in German History: Power, Agency, and Experience from the Sixteenth to the Twentieth Century, ed. Lynn Abrams and Elizabeth Harvey, 121–41. Durham: Duke University Press, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Siefkes, Martin. “Discursive Traces of Genocide in Johannes Spiecker’s Travel Diary (1905–1907).” Journal of Namibian Studies 16 (2014): 83–114.Google Scholar
  78. Silvester, Jeremy, and J. B. Gewald, eds. Words Cannot Be Found: German Colonial Rule in Namibia: An Annotated Reprint of the 1918 Blue Book. Oxford: Brill, 2005.Google Scholar
  79. Simpson, David. “Morale and Sexual Morality among British Troops in the First World War.” In World War I and the Cultures of Modernity, ed. Douglas MacKaman and Michael Mays, 18–29. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 2000.Google Scholar
  80. Smith, Angela K. The Second Battlefield. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2000.Google Scholar
  81. Smith, Jill Suzanne. Berlin Coquette: Prostitution and the New German Woman, 1890–1933. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2013.Google Scholar
  82. Solansky, Adolf. German Administration in Belgium. New York: n.p., 1928.Google Scholar
  83. Timm, Annette F. The Politics of Fertility in Twentieth-Century Berlin. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.Google Scholar
  84. Todd, Lisa M. “The Hun and the Home: Gender, Sexuality and Propaganda in First World War Europe.” In World War I and Propaganda, ed. Troy Paddock, 137–54. Leiden and Boston: Brill Publishing, 2014.Google Scholar
  85. Todd, Lisa M. Sexual Treason in Germany During the First World War. London: Palgrave-Macmillan, 2017.Google Scholar
  86. Walther, Daniel J. Sex and Control: Venereal Disease, Colonial Physicians, and Indigenous Agency in German Colonialism, 1884–1914. New York: Berghahn Books, 2015.Google Scholar
  87. Watson, Janet K. Fighting Different Wars: Experience, Memory and the First World War in Britain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.Google Scholar
  88. Ziemann, Benjamin. Gewalt im Ersten Weltkrieg: Töten – Überlebten – Verweigern. Essen: Klartext Verlag, 2013.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lisa M. Todd
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of HistoryUniversity of New BrunswickFrederictonCanada

Personalised recommendations