Both “Eurocentrism” and “racism” are used in this book. Eurocentrism, as used here, means judging the “other” according to Christian-European values. The Eurocentric observation is twisted because it expects, or desires, the “other” to adapt himself to a cultural conception foreign to him. Thus, populus Christianus was immeasurably superior to Muslims and to non-Christians in general. Erasmus’ objection to the conclusion of international agreements between Europeans and Turks, or Muslims in general, is one example of his Eurocentric worldview. As for racism, against two reductive definitions of racism phrased by different scholars and presented here, the book’s arguments are tested and approved.