Advertisement

Anonymous Read/Write Memory: Leader Election and De-anonymization

  • Emmanuel Godard
  • Damien Imbs
  • Michel RaynalEmail author
  • Gadi Taubenfeld
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11639)

Abstract

Anonymity has mostly been studied in the context where processes have no identity. A new notion of anonymity was recently introduced at PODC 2017, namely, this notion considers that the processes have distinct identities but disagree on the names of the read/write registers that define the shared memory. As an example, a register named A by a process p and a shared register named B by another process q may correspond to the very same register X, while the same name C may correspond to different registers for p and q.

Recently, a memory-anonymous deadlock-free mutual exclusion algorithm has been proposed by some of the authors. This article addresses two different problems, namely election and memory de-anonymization. Election consists of electing a single process as a leader that is known by every process. Considering the shared memory as an array of atomic read/write registers \( SM [1..m]\), memory de-anonymization consists in providing each process \(p_i\) with a mapping function \(\mathsf{{map}}_i()\) such that, for any two processes \(p_i\) and \(p_j\) and any integer \(x\in [1..m]\), \(\mathsf{{map}}_i(x)\) and \(\mathsf{{map}}_j(x)\) allow them to address the same register.

Let n be the number of processes and \(\alpha \) a positive integer. The article presents election and de-anonymization algorithms for \(m=\alpha ~ n +\beta \) registers, where \(\beta \) is equal to 1, \(n-1\), or belongs to a set denoted M(n) (which characterizes the values for which mutual exclusion can be solved despite anonymity). The de-anonymization algorithms are based on the use of election algorithms. The article also shows that the size of the permanent control information that, due to de-anonymization, a register must save forever, can be reduced to a single bit.

Keywords

Anonymous registers Asynchronous system Atomic read/write registers Concurrent algorithm Leader election Local memory Mapping Memory de-anonymization Mutual exclusion Synchronization 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was partially supported by the French ANR project DESCARTES (16-CE40-0023-03) devoted to layered and modular structures in distributed computing. The authors want to thank the referees for their constructive comments.

References

  1. 1.
    Angluin, D.: Local and global properties in networks of processes. In: Proceedings of 12th Symposium on Theory of Computing (STOC 1980), pp. 82–93. ACM Press (1980)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aghazadeh, Z., Imbs, D., Raynal, M., Taubenfeld, G., Woelfel, Ph.: Optimal memory-anonymous symmetric deadlock-free mutual exclusion. In: Proceedings of 38th ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC 2019), 10 pages. ACM Press (2019)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Attiya, H., Gorbach, A., Moran, S.: Computing in totally anonymous asynchronous shared-memory systems. Inf. Comput. 173(2), 162–183 (2002)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bonnet, F., Raynal, M.: Anonymous asynchronous systems: the case of failure detectors. Distrib. Comput. 26(3), 141–158 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bouzid, Z., Raynal, M., Sutra, P.: Anonymous obstruction-free \((n, k)\)-set agreement with \((n-k+1)\) atomic read/write registers. Distrib. Comput. 31(2), 99–117 (2018)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Garg, V.K., Ghosh, J.: Symmetry in spite of hierarchy. In: Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS 1990), pp. 4–11. IEEE Computer Press (1990)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Godard E., Imbs D., Raynal M., Taubenfeld G.: Mutex-based de-anonymization of an anonymous read/write memory. In: Proceedings of 7th International Conference on Networked Systems (NETYS 2018). LNCS, 15 pages. Springer (2019, to appear)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Guerraoui, R., Ruppert, E.: Anonymous and fault-tolerant shared-memory computations. Distrib. Comput. 20, 165–177 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Johnson, R.E., Schneider, F.B.: Symmetry and similarity in distributed systems. In: Proceedings of 4th ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC 1985), pp. 13–22. ACM Press (1985)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Raynal, M.: Concurrent Programming: Algorithms, Principles and Foundations. Springer, Heidelberg (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-32027-9. ISBN 978-3-642-32026-2CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Raynal, M., Cao, J.: Anonymity in distributed read/write systems: an introductory survey. In: Podelski, A., Taïani, F. (eds.) NETYS 2018. LNCS, vol. 11028, pp. 122–140. Springer, Cham (2019).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-05529-5_9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rashid, S., Taubenfeld, G., Bar-Joseph, Z.: Genome wide epigenetic modifications as a shared memory consensus. In: 6th Workshop on Biological Distributed Algorithms (BDA 2018), London (2018)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Styer, E., Peterson, G.L.: Tight bounds for shared memory symmetric mutual exclusion problems. In: Proceedings of 8th ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, pp. 177–191. ACM Press (1989)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Taubenfeld, G.: Synchronization Algorithms and Concurrent Programming. Pearson Education/Prentice Hall, 423 pages (2006). ISBN 0-131-97259-6Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Taubenfeld G., Coordination without prior agreement. In: Proceedings of 36th ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC 2017), pp. 325–334. ACM Press (2017)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Taubenfeld, G.: Set agreement power is not a precise characterization for oblivious deterministic anonymous objects. In: Censor-Hillel, K., Flammini, M (eds.) SIROCCO 2019. LNCS, pp 293–308 (2019)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yamashita, M., Kameda, T.: Computing on anonymous networks: Part I-characterizing the solvable cases. IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 7(1), 69–89 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emmanuel Godard
    • 1
  • Damien Imbs
    • 1
  • Michel Raynal
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Gadi Taubenfeld
    • 4
  1. 1.LIS, Université d’Aix-MarseilleMarseilleFrance
  2. 2.Univ Rennes IRISARennesFrance
  3. 3.Department of ComputingPolytechnic UniversityKowloonHong Kong
  4. 4.The Interdisciplinary CenterHerzliyaIsrael

Personalised recommendations