Beneficial Biofilm Applications in Food and Agricultural Industry

  • Emel Ünal Turhan
  • Zerrin Erginkaya
  • Mihriban Korukluoğlu
  • Gözde Konuray


Biofilm is defined as a community in which microorganisms adhere to a living or inanimate surface, embedded in a gelatinous layer in a self-produced matrix of extra polymeric substances, adhered to each other, to a solid surface or to an interface. Adverse environmental conditions caused biofilm formation by inducing transition of microorganisms from planktonic cell form to sessile cell form and altered metabolism of bacteria in biofilms. Bacteria in biofilm matrix produce the specific secondary metabolites and gain robustness. Although biofilms are often accepted as potentially destructive for clinical and other industrial fields, many biofilms are beneficial and there are several reports related to the positive use of these biofilms. Beneficial biofilms could be used for wide applications (antibacterial, food fermentation, biofertilizer, filtration, biofouling, prevention of corrosion, antimicrobial agents, wastewater treatment, bioremediation and microbial fuel cells) in food, agricultural, medical, environment and other fields. According to previous reports, certain strains including Bacillus spp. (B. subtilis, B. thuringiensis, B. brevis, B. licheniformis, Bacillus polymyxa, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens) Lactobacillus spp. (L. casei, L. paracasei, L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, L. reuteri) Enterococcus spp. (E. casseliflavus, E. faecalis, E. faecium), Pseudomonas spp. (P. fluorescens, P. putida and P. chlororaphis), Acetobacter aceti, some fungi and Pseudoalteromonas sp., etc. led to beneficial biofilm formation. Food and agricultural industry may mostly benefit from biofilms in terms of their biochemical, fermentative, antimicrobial and biotechnological characteristics. Microorganisms in biofilm matrix could positively affect quality characteristics of food products such as texture, biochemical composition and sensorial properties via the production of specific secondary metabolites. Additionally, biofilms have an importance in water and soil safety of agricultural land. The present chapter highlights beneficial biofilm applications in food and agriculture industry.


Biofilms Beneficial microorganisms Probiotics Food and agriculture industry 


  1. Agarwal S, Sharma K, Swanson BG, Yüksel GÜ, Clarck S (2006) Nonstarter lactic acid bacteria biofilms and calcium lactate crystals in cheddar cheese. J Dairy Sci 89:1452–1466CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alimoradi S, Faraj R, Torabian A (2018) Effects of residual aluminum on hybrid membrane bioreactor (Coagulation-MBR) performance, treating dairy wastewater. Chem Eng Process Process Intensif 133:320–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ayala FR, Bauman C, Cogliati S, Lenini C, Bartolini M, Grau R (2017) Microbial flora, probiotics, Bacillus subtilis and the search for a long and healthy human longevity. Microbial Cell 4(4):133–136CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Aziza F, Mettler E, Daudin JJ, Sanaa M (2006) Stochastic, compartmental, and dynamic modeling of cross-contamination during mechanical smearing of cheeses. Risk Anal 26(3):731–745CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Babu SV, Triveni S, Reddy RS, Sathyanarayana J (2017) Persistence of PSB-fungi biofilmed biofertilizer in the soils and its effect on growth and yield of maize. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 6(12):1812–1821CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baht SA, Singh S, Singh J, Kumar S, Bhawana VAP (2018) Bioremediation and detoxification of industrial wastes by earthworms: vermicompost as powerful crop nutrient in sustainable agriculture. Bioresour Technol 252:172–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Banks JM, Williams AG (2004) The role of the nonstarter lactic acid bacteria in Cheddar cheese ripening. Int J Dairy Technol 57(2/3):145–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Basu S, Rabara R, Negi S (2017) Towards a better greener future - an alternative strategy using biofertilizers. I: Plant growth promoting bacteria. Plant Gene 12:43–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Beauregard PB, Chai Y, Vlamakis H, Losick R, Kolter R (2013) Bacillus subtilis biofilm induction by plant polysaccharides. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:E1621–E1630CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Beech IB, Sunner J (2004) Biocorrosion: towards understanding interactions between biofilms and metals. Curr Opin Biotechnol 15:181–186CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Benarjee G, Ray AK (2017) The advancement of probiotics research and its application in fish farming industries. Res Vet Sci 115:66–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bennett JW, Faison B (1997) Use of fungi in biodegradation. In: Hurst CJ (ed) Manual of environmental microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, pp 758–765Google Scholar
  13. Berlanga M, Guerrero R (2016) Living together in biofilms: the microbial cell factory and its biotechnological implications. Microb Cell Fact 15(165):1–11Google Scholar
  14. Bhardwaj D, Ansari MW, Sahoo RK, Tuteja N (2014) Biofertilizers function as key player in sustainable agriculture by improving soil fertility, plant tolerance and crop productivity. Microb Cell Fact 13(669):1–10Google Scholar
  15. Blenkinsop SA, Costerton JW (1991) Understanding bacterial biofilms. Trends Biotechnol 9:138–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carraro L, Fasolato L, Montemurro F, Martino ME, Balzan S, Servili M, Novelli E, Cardazzo B (2014) Polyphenols from olive mill waste affect biofilm formation and motility in Escherichia coli K-12. J Microbial Biotechnol 7:265–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carvalho F, Prazeres AR, Rivas J (2013) Cheese whey wastewater: characterization and treatment. Sci Total Environ 445(446):385–396CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cheng KC, Demirci A, Catchmark JM (2010) Advances in biofilm reactors for production of value-added products. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 87:445–456CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Chiacchierini E, Restuccia D, Vinci G (2004) Bioremediation of food industry effluents: recent applications of free and immobilised polyphenoloxidases. Food Sci Technol Int 10(6):373–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Das N, Basak LVG, Salam JA, Abigail EA (2017) Application of biofilms on remediation of pollutants – an overview. J Microbiol Biotech Res 2(5):783–790Google Scholar
  21. Dash HR, Mangwani N, Chakraborty J, Kumari S, Das S (2013) Marine bacteria: potential candidates for enhanced bioremediation. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 97:561–571CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Didienne R, Defargues C, Callon C, Meylheuc T, Hulin S, Montel MC (2012) Characteristics of microbial biofilm on wooden vats (‘gerles’) in PDO Salers cheese. Int J Food Microbiol 156:91–101CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Dunne WM (2002) Bacterial adhesion: seen any good biofilms lately? Clin Microbiol Rev 15(2):155–166CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Edwards SJ, Kjellerup BV (2013) Applications of biofilms in bioremediation and biotransformation of persistent organic pollutants, pharmaceuticals/personal care products, and heavy metals. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 97(23):9909–9921CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Engevik MA, Versalovic J (2017) Biochemical features of beneficial microbes: foundations for therapeutic microbiology. Microbiol Spectr 5(5):1–54Google Scholar
  26. Ercan D, Demirci A (2015) Current and future trends for biofilm reactors for fermentation processes. Crit Rev Biotechnol 35(1):1–14CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Farahmand N, Raeisi SN, Ouoba I, Sutherland J, Ghoddusi H (2013) Screening beneficial dairy Lactobacillus spp. for bioflm formation under different environmental stresses. J Bacteriol Parasitol 4(4):124Google Scholar
  28. France DC (2016) Anticorrosive influence of Acetobacter aceti biofilms on carbon steel. J Mater Eng Perform 25(9):3580–3589CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Furukawa S, Watanabe T, Toyama H, Morinaga Y (2013) Significance of microbial symbiotic coexistence in traditional fermentation. J Biosci Bioeng 116(5):533–539CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Gaglio R, Cruciata M, Gerlando RD, Scatassa ML, Cardamone C, Mancuso I, Sardina MT, Moschetti G, Portolano B, Settanni L (2015) Microbial activation of wooden vats used for traditional cheese production and evolution of neoformed biofilms. Appl Environ Microbiol 82(2):585–595CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Galgano F, Condelli N, Caruso MC, Colangelo MA, Favati F (2015) Probiotics and prebiotics in fruits and vegetables: technological and sensory aspects. In: Rai VR, Bai JA (eds) Beneficial microbes in fermented and functional foods. CRC Press Taylor Francis Group, Boca Raton, pp 189–206Google Scholar
  32. Galinari E, Nóbrega JE, Andrade NJ, Ferreira CLLF (2014) Microbiological aspects of the biofilm on wooden utensils used to make a Brazilian artisanal cheese. Braz J Microbiol 45(2):713–720CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Garcia AP, Romero D, Vicente A (2011) Plant protection and growth stimulation by microorganisms: biotechnological applications of Bacilli in agriculture. Curr Opin Biotechnol 22:187–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gomez NC, Ramiro JMP, Quecan BXV, Franco BDGM (2016) Use of potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) biofilms for the control of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 biofilms formation. Front Microbiol 7:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Grounta A, Panagou EZ (2014) Mono and dual species biofilm formation between Lactobacillus pentosus and Pichia membranifaciens on the surface of black olives under different sterile brine conditions. Ann Microbiol 64:1757–1767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Grounta A, Doulgeraki AI, Panagou EZ (2015) Quantification and characterization of microbial biofilm community attached on the surface of fermentation vessels used in green table olive processing. Int J Food Microbiol 203:41–48CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Guerrieri E, Niederhäusern S, Messi P, Sabia C, Iseppi R, Anacarso I, Bondi M (2009) Use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) biofilms for the control of Listeria monocytogenes in a small-scale model. Food Control 20:861–865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Guillier L, Stahl V, Hezard B, Notz E, Briandet R (2008) Modelling the competitive growth between Listeria monocytogenes and biofilm microflora of smear cheese wooden shelves. Int J Food Microbiol 128:51–57CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Gulgor G, Korukluoglu M (2016) Biofilms and their advantages/disadvantages in food industry. In: Vilas AM (ed) Antimicrobial research: novel bioknowledge and educitional programs. Formatex Publishing, Badajoz, pp 308–314Google Scholar
  40. Gupta S, Anand S (2018) Induction of pitting corrosion on stainless steel (grades 304 and 316) used in dairy industry by biofilms of common spore formers. Int J Dairy Technol 71(2):519–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hall SL, Costerton JW, Stoodley P (2004) Bacterial biofilms:from the natural environment to infectious diseases. Nat Rev Microbiol 2:95–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Heperkan D (2013) Microbiota of table olive fermentations and criteria of selection for their use as starters. Front Microbiol 4(143):1–11Google Scholar
  43. Hettiarachchi RP, Dharmakeerthi RS, Seneviratne G, Jayakody AN, Silva E, Gunathilake T, Thewarapperuma A, Maheepala CK (2014) Availability and leaching of nutrients after biofilm biofertilizer applications into a red yellow podsolic soil. J Rubber Res Inst Sri Lanka 94:43–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hinsa SM, Espinosa-Urgel M, Ramos JL, O’Toole GA (2003) Transition from reversible to irreversible attachment during biofilm formation by Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS365 requires an ABC transporter and a large secreted protein. Mol Microbiol 49:905–918CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Hirth N, Topp E, Dörfler U, Stupperich E, Munch JC, Schroll R (2016) An effective bioremediation approach for enhanced microbial degradation of the veterinary antibiotic sulfamethazine in an agricultural soil. Chem Biol Technol Agric 3(29):1–11Google Scholar
  46. Horemans B, Albers P, Springael D (2016) The biofilm concept from a bioremediation perspective. In: Lear G (ed) Biofilms in bioremediation. Caister Academic Press, Norfolk, pp 23–41Google Scholar
  47. Hossain MI, Sadekuzzaman M, Ha SD (2017) Probiotics as potential alternative biocontrol agents in the agriculture and food industries: a review. Food Res Int 100:63–73CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Houdt RV, Michiels CW (2010) Biofilm formation and the Food industry, a focus on the bacterial outersurface. J Appl Microbiol 109:1117–1131CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Ivanova TI, Ivanov R (2013) Anticorrosion effect of biofilm forming by Lactobacillus strains on metal surfaces. Bulgarian J Agr Sci 19(2):83–85Google Scholar
  50. Ivanova TI, Ivanov RI (2014) Study of biofilm formed by lactic acid bacteria on the surface of mild steel. J Life Sci 8:799–804Google Scholar
  51. Ivanova TI, Ivanov R, Iliev I, Ivanova I (2009) Study of anticorrosion effect of eps from nowstrains Lactobacillus delbrueckii. Biotechnol Biotechnol 23:705–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jahid IK, Ha SD (2014) The paradox of mixed-species biofilms in the context of food safety. Comprehens Rev Food Sci Food Saf 13:1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Jara MJS, Ilabaca A, Vega M, Garcia A (2016) Biofilm forming Lactobacillus: new challenges for the development of probiotics. Microorganisms 4(35):1–14Google Scholar
  54. Jefferson KK (2004) What drives bacteria to produce a biofilm? FEMS Microbiol Lett 236:163–173CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Jones SE, Versalovic J (2009) Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri biofilms produce antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory factors. BMC Microbiol 9(35):1–9Google Scholar
  56. Kalkan S, Öztürk D, Selimoğlu BS (2018) Determining some of the quality characteristics of probiotic yogurts manufactured by using microencapsulated Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii. Turk J Veterin Anim Sci 42:617–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kasim WA, Gaafar RM, Ali RMA, Omar MN, Hewait HM (2016) Effect of biofilm forming plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on salinity tolerance in barley. Annals Agric Sci 61(2):217–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kerry RG, Patra JK, Gouda S, Park Y, Shin HS, Das G (2018) Benefaction of probiotics for human health: a review. J Food Drug Anal 26:927–939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Khan MU, Chniti S, Owaid MN, Hussain MB, Shariati MA (2018) An overview on properties and internal characteristics of anaerobic bioreactors of food waste. J Nutr Health Food Eng 8(4):319–322Google Scholar
  60. Kokare CR, Chakraborty S, Khopade AN, Mahadik KR (2009) Biofilm: importance and applications. Indian J Biotechnol 8:159–168Google Scholar
  61. Kshirsagar AD (2013) Application of bioremediation process for wastewater treatment using aquatic fungi. Int J Curr Res 5(07):1737–1739Google Scholar
  62. Laranjo M, Elias M, Fraqueza MJ (2017) The use of starter cultures in traditional meat products. Hindawi J Food Qual 2017:1–18Google Scholar
  63. Lee AK, Buehler MG, Newman DK (2006) Influence of a dual-species biofilm on the corrosion of mild steel. Corros Sci 48:165–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lens P (2011) Biofilms for environmental biotechnology in support of sustainable development. Virulence 2(5):478–479CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Licitra G, Ogier JC, Parayre S, Pediliggieri C, Carnemolla TM, Falentin H, Madec MN, Carpino S, Lortal S (2007) Variability of bacterial biofilms of the “tina” wood vats used in the ragusano cheese-making process. Appl Environ Microbiol 73(21):6980–6987CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Lindsay D, Holy A (2006) What Food safety professionals should know about bacterial biofilms. Br Food J 108(1):27–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lortal S, Blasi AD, Madec MN, Pediliggieri C, Tuminello L, Tanguy G, Fauquant J, Lecuona Y, Campo P, Carpino S, Licitra G (2009) Tina wooden vat biofilm: a safe and highly efficient lactic acid bacteria delivering system in PDO Ragusano cheese making. Int J Food Microbiol 132:1–8CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Malusa E, Paszt LS, Ciesielska J (2012) Technologies for beneficial microorganisms inocula used as biofertilizers. Scientific World Journal 2012:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mangwani N, Kumari S, Das S (2015) Bacterial biofilms and quorum sensing: fidelity in bioremediation technology. Biotechnol Genet Eng Rev 32:43–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Manzano JD, Ruiz CO, Gallego JB, Lopez FNA, Fernandez AG, Diaz RJ (2012) Biofilm formation on abiotic and biotic surfaces during Spanish style green table olive fermentation. Int J Food Microbiol 157:230–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Marapatla NS (2014) Study of biofilmed biofertilizers to improve crop production and disease control in chickpea. Master Thesis, Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University., 119pGoogle Scholar
  72. Mariani C, Briandet R, Chamba JF, Notz E, Pantiez AC, Eyoug RN, Oulahal N (2007) Biofilm ecology of wooden shelves used in ripening the french raw milk smear cheese reblochon de savoie. J Dairy Sci 90(4):1653–1661CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Masry MH, Bestawy E, Adl NI (2004) Bioremediation of vegetable oil and grease from polluted wastewater using a sand biofilm system. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 20:551–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Mcnamara CJ, Anastasiou CC, O’Flaherty V, Mitchell R (2008) Bioremediation of olive mill wastewater. Int Biodeter Biodegr 61:127–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Morikawa M (2006) Beneficial biofilm formation by industrial bacteria Bacillus subtilis and related species. J Biosci Bioeng 101(1):1–8CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Mueller JG, Cerniglia CE, Pritchard PH (1996) Bioremediation of environments contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Crawford RL, Crawford DL (eds) Bioremediation principles and applicaitons. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 125–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Narekumar J, Sathishkumar K, Sarankumar RK, Murugan K, Rajasekar A (2017) An anticorrosive study on potential bioactive compound produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa TBH2 against the biocorrosive bacterial biofilm on copper metal. J Mol Liq 243:706–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Örnek D, Wood TK, Hsu CH, Mansfeld F (2002) Corrosion control using regenerative biofilms (CCURB) on brass in different media. Corros Sci 44:2291–2302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Pandey PK, Bharti V, Kumar K (2014) Biofilm in aquaculture production. Afr J Microbiol Res 8(13):1434–1443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Petrova OE, Sauer K (2012) Sticky situations: key components that control bacterial surface attachment. J Bacteriol 194:2413–2425CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. Qureshi N (2009) Beneficial biofilms: wastewater and other industrial applications. In: Fratamico PM, Annous BA, Gunther NW (eds) Biofilms in the food and beverage industries. Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition, 4th edn. Woodhead, Cambridge, pp 474–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Qureshi N, Karcher P, Cotta M, Blaschek HP (2004) High-productivity continuous biofilm reactor for butanol production. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 113(116):713–721CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Rafique M, Hayat K, Mukhtar T, Amna, Khan AA, Afridi MS, Hussain T, Sultan T, Munis MFH, Imran M, Chaudhary HJ (2015) Bacterial biofilm formation and its role against agricultural pathogens. In: Méndez-Vilas A (ed) The battle against microbial pathogens: basic science, technological advances and educational programs. Formatex Publishing, BadajozGoogle Scholar
  84. Raganati F, Olivieri G, Procentese A, Russo ME, Salatino P, Marzocchella A (2013) Butanol production by bioconversion of cheese whey in a continuous packed bed reactor. Bioresour Technol 138:259–265CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Rajendran A, Fox T, Reis CR, Wilson B, Hu B (2018) Deposition of manure nutrients in a novel mycoalgae biofilm for nutrient management. Biocatal Agric Biotechnol 14:120–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Rajpal H, Joykutty L, Golden C (2017) Assaying the formation of beneficial biofilms by lactic acid bacteria and the effect of ayurvedic plant extracts on their enhancement. J Emerg Investig:1–7Google Scholar
  87. Ramey BE, Koutsoudis M, Bodman SB, Fuqua C (2004) Biofilm formation in plant–microbe associations. Curr Opin Microbiol 7:602–609CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Ratha HAA, Jasim SJ (2018) Effect of biofilm with biofertilizer of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Rhizobium leguminosarum, chemical fertilizer level and addition technique on some growth and yield traits of wheat (Triticum asetivum L.). Iraqi J Agric Sci 49(4):646–654Google Scholar
  89. Robertson SR, McLean RJC (2015) Beneficial biofilms. Bioengineering 2(4):437–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Rosche B, Li XZ, Hauer B, Schmid A, Buehler K (2009) Microbial biofilms: a concept for industrial catalysis? Trends Biotechnol 27(11):636–643CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Rudrappa T, Biedrzycki ML, Bais HP (2008) Causes and consequences of plant-associated biofilms. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 64:153–166CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Santoyo G, Hagelsieb GM, Mosqueda MCO, Glick BR (2016) Plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes. Microbiol Res 183:92–99CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Sarjit A, Tan SM, Dykes GA (2015) Surface modification of materials to encourage beneficial biofilm formation. Bioengineering 2(4):404–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Scatassa ML, Gaglio R, Macaluso G, Francesca N, Randazzo W, Cardamone C, Grigoli AD, Moschetti G, Settanni L (2015) Transfer, composition and technological characterization of the lactic acid bacterial populations of the wooden vats used to produce traditional stretched cheeses. Food Microbiol 52:31–41CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Sehar S, Naz I (2016) Role of the biofilms in wastewater treatment. In: Dhanasekaran D (ed) Microbial biofilms - importance and applications. InTech Open, London, pp 121–144Google Scholar
  96. Seneviratne G, Wijepala PC (2011) Biofilm biofertilizers for incorporating biodiversity benefits and reducing environmentally harmful subsidies in agriculture. Sri Lanka For 38:59–63Google Scholar
  97. Seneviratne G, Zavahir JS, Bandara WMMS, Weerasekara MLMAW (2008) Fungal-bacterial biofilms: their development for novel biotechnological applications. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 24:739–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Seneviratne G, Jayasekara APDA, Silva MSDL, Abeysekara UP (2016) Developed microbial biofilms can restore deteriorated conventional agricultural soils. Soil Biol Biochem 43:1059–1062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Shah MP (2018) Bioremediation-waste water treatment. J Bioremed Biodegr 9(1):1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Shi X, Zhu X (2009) Biofilm formation and food safety in food industries. Trends Food Sci Technol 20:407–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Singh R, Paul D, Jain RK (2006) Biofilms: implications in bioremediation. Trends Microbiol 14(9):389–396CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Singhalage ID, Seneviratne G, Madawala HMSP, Wijepala PC (2019) Profitability of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) production with biofilmed biofertilizer application. Sci Hortic 243:411–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Somers EB, Johnson ME, Wong ACL (2001) Biofilm formation and contamination of cheeseby nonstarter lactic acid bacteria in the dairy environment. J Dairy Sci 84:1926–1936CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Song D, Ibrahim S, Hayek S (2012) Recent application of probiotics in food and agricultural science. In: Rigobelo E (ed) Probiotics. InTech Open, London, pp 1–34Google Scholar
  105. Speranza B, Sinigaglia M, Corbo MR (2009) Nonstarter lactic acid bacteria biofilms: a means to control the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in soft cheese. Food Control 20:1063–1067CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Srey S, Jahid IK, Ha SD (2013) Biofilm formation in food industries: a food safety concern. Food Control 31:572–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Stavridou I, Forzi L (2011) Biofilms: friend or foe? Virulence 2(5):475–476CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Stepanovic S, Vukovic D, Hola V, Bonaventura GD, Djukic S, Cirkovic I, Ruzicka F (2007) Quantification of biofilm in microtiter plates: overview of testing conditions and practical recommendations for assessment of biofilm production by staphylococci. APMIS 115:891–899CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Sudadi S, Triharyanto E (2018) The application of biofilm biofertilizer-based organic fertilizer to increase available soil nutrients and spinach yield on dryland (a study case in Lithosol soil type). Earth Environ Sci 200:1–7Google Scholar
  110. Thassitou PK, Arvanitoyannis IS (2001) Bioremediation: a novel approach to food waste management. Trends Food Sci Technol 12:185–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Todhanakasem T (2013) Microbial biofilm in the industry. Afr J Microbiol Res 7(17):1625–1634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Toyofuku M, Inaba T, Kiyokawa T, Obana N, Yawata Y, Nomura N (2016) Environmental factors that shape biofilm formation. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 80(1):7–12CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Trimanne TLS, Perera TA, Anuradha EAS, Seneviratne G, Kulasooriya SA (2018) The effect of flavonoid naringenin coupled with the developed biofilm Azorhizobium caulinodans-Aspergillus spp. on increase in rice yields in conventionally and organically grown rice. Int J Plant Sci 1:1–6Google Scholar
  114. Tsveteslava II, Ivanov R (2014) Exopolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria as corrosion inhibitors. J Life Sci 8:940–945Google Scholar
  115. Turki Y, Mehri I, Lajnef R, Rejab AB, Khessairi A, Cherif H, Ouzari H (2017) Biofilms in bioremediation and wastewater treatment: characterization of bacterial community structure and diversity during seasons in municipal wastewater treatment process. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24(4):3519–3530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Velmourougane K, Prasanna R, Saxena AK (2017) Agriculturally important microbial biofilms: present status and future prospects. J Basic Microbiol 57:548–573CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Vidali M (2001) Bioremediation. An overview. Pure Appl Chem 73(7):1163–1172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Vilamakis H (2011) The world of biofilms. Virulence 2(5):431–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Vos WM (2015) Microbial biofilms and the human intestinal microbiome. NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes 1:1–3Google Scholar
  120. Wang S, Rao NC, Oui R, Moletta R (2009) Performance and kinetic evaluation of anaerobic moving bed biofilm reactor for treating milk permeate from dairy industry. Bioresour Technol 100:5641–5647CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Wesselin W (2015) Beneficial biofilms in marine aquaculture? Linking points of biofilm formation mechanisms in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudoalteromonas species. Bioengineering 2(3):104–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Wingender J, Flemming HC (2011) Biofilms in drinking water and their role as reservoir for pathogens. Int J Hyg Environ Health 214:417–423CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Winkelströter LK, Teixeira FBR, Silva EP, Alves VF, Martinis ECP (2014) Unraveling microbial biofilms of importance for food microbiology. Microb Ecol 68:35–46CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Wood TK, Ornek D, Mansfeld F, Rey MD (2002) Preventing corrosion with beneficial biofilms. United State Patent Application Publication, Sheet 1 of 10 US 2002/0132126 A1, p 1-10Google Scholar
  125. Wood TK, Hong SH, Ma Q (2010) Engineering biofilm formation and dispersal. Trends Biotechnol 29(2):87–94CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. Wood TL, Guha R, Tang L, Geitner M, Kumar M, Wood TK (2016) Living biofouling-resistant membranes as a model for the beneficial use of engineered biofilms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 113:E2802–E2811. 1-10CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  127. Wolfe BE, Dutton RJ (2015) Fermented foods as experimentally tractable microbial ecosystems. Cell 161(1):49–55Google Scholar
  128. Yahav S, Berkovich Z, Ostrov I, Reifen R, Shemesh M (2018) Encapsulation of beneficial probiotic bacteria in extracellular matrix from biofilm-forming Bacillus subtilis. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 46:974–982CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Zottola EA, Sasahara KC (1999) Microbial biofilms in the food processing industry - should they be a concern? Int J Food Microbiol 23:125–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Zuo R (2007) Biofilms: strategies for metal corrosion inhibition employing microorganisms. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 76:1245–1253CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emel Ünal Turhan
    • 1
  • Zerrin Erginkaya
    • 2
  • Mihriban Korukluoğlu
    • 3
  • Gözde Konuray
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Food Technology, Kadirli Applied Sciences SchoolOsmaniye Korkut Ata UniversityOsmaniyeTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of AgricultureCukurova UniversityAdanaTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of AgricultureUludag UniversityBursaTurkey

Personalised recommendations