Advertisement

Measuring Emotional Labor: Survey Construction, Measurement Invariance, and Structural Equation Model

  • Seung-Bum YangEmail author
  • Mary E. Guy
  • Sharon H. Mastracci
  • Aisha Azhar
  • Chih-Wei Hsieh
  • Hyun Jung Lee
  • Xiaojun Lu
Chapter

Abstract

The capacity to engage in international comparative studies of emotional labor depends on having a robust survey instrument that works as well in one culture as in another. Comparative research projects are complicated undertakings because they must accommodate different languages as well as linguistic nuances. Challenges are compounded when empirical methods are employed. Translation and back-translation of the survey must be conducted to ensure that the meanings of items are as intended. Measurement equivalence must be assured in order for findings to be credible and for comparisons to be made across countries and cultures. This chapter describes development of the survey items, explains how the challenge of making comparisons across nations was overcome, and shows the structural equation model used in each nation’s analysis. Items for each of three emotional labor constructs—emotive capacity, pretending, and deep acting—were developed by first analyzing pilot data from five nations on three continents. After variables were refined, public service workers from a larger sample of nations were surveyed: seven nations on four continents. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) then tested for cross-national invariance. Results confirm both configural and partial metric invariance of the items, enabling comparison of emotional labor demands and its consequences across nations.

References

  1. Ashkanasy, N. M., A. C. Troth, S. A. Lawrence, and P. J. Jordan. 2017. “Emotions and Emotional Regulation in HRM: A Multi-level Perspective.” Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management 35: 1–52.Google Scholar
  2. Atkinson, C., and R. Lucas. 2013. “Policy and Gender in Adult Social Care Work.” Public Administration 91 (1): 159–73.Google Scholar
  3. Bandura, Albert. 1977. “Self-Efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change.” Psychological Review 84 (2): 191–215.Google Scholar
  4. Bhave, D. P., and T. M. Glomb. 2009. “Emotional Labour Demands, Wages and Gender: A Within-Person, Between-Jobs Study.” Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 82 (3): 683–707.Google Scholar
  5. Brotheridge, C. M., and Alicia A. Grandey. 2002. “Emotional Labor and Burnout: Comparing Two Perspectives of ‘People Work’.” Journal of Vocational Behavior 60 (1): 17–39.Google Scholar
  6. Bryne, B. M., R. J. Shavelson, and B. Muthen. 1989. “Testing for the Equivalence of Factorial Covariance and Mean Structures: The Issue of Partial Measurement Invariance.” Psychological Bulletin 105 (3): 456–66.Google Scholar
  7. Gabriel, A. S., M. A. Daniels, J. M. Diefendorff, and G. J. Greguras. 2015. “Emotional Labor Actors: A Latent Profile Analysis of Emotional Labor Strategies.” Journal of Applied Psychology 100 (3): 863–79.Google Scholar
  8. Grandey, Alicia A. 2015. “Emotional Labor Threatens Decent Work: A Proposal to Eradicate Emotional Display Rules.” Journal of Organizational Behavior 36 (6): 770–85.Google Scholar
  9. Grandey, Alicia A., J. M. Diefendorff, and D. E. Rupp, eds. 2013. Emotional Labor in the 21st Century: Diverse Perspectives on Emotion Regulation at Work. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  10. Grandey, Alicia A. 2000. “Emotion Regulation in the Workplace: A New Way to Conceptualize Emotional Labor.” Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 5 (1): 95–110.Google Scholar
  11. Guy, Mary E., and Aisha Azhar. 2018. “Emotional Labor Meanings, Gender, and Culture: A Comparative Assessment.” Administrative Theory & Praxis 40 (4): 289–303.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10841806.2018.1485452.Google Scholar
  12. Guy, Mary E., and Hyun Jung Lee. 2015. “Emotional Intelligence and Emotional Labor: How Related Are They?” Review of Public Personnel Administration 35 (3): 261–77.Google Scholar
  13. Guy, Mary E., Meredith A. Newman, and Sharon H. Mastracci. 2008. Emotional Labor: Putting the Service in Public Service. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
  14. Hair, J. F., W. C. Black, B. J. Babin, and R. E. Anderson. 2014. Multivariate Data Analysis. 7th ed. Essex, UK: Pearson Publishing.Google Scholar
  15. Hochschild, Arlie R. 1983. The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  16. Hochschild, Arlie R. 1979. “Emotion Work, Feeling Rules, and Social Structure.” The American Journal of Sociology 85 (3): 551–75.Google Scholar
  17. Hsieh, Chih-Wei. 2012. “Burnout Among Public Service Workers: The Role of Emotional Labor Requirements and Job Resources.” Review of Public Personnel Administration 20 (2): 1–24.Google Scholar
  18. Hsieh, Chih-Wei, Myung Jin, and Mary E. Guy. 2012. “Managing Work-Related Emotions: Analysis of a Cross Section of Public Service Workers.” The American Review of Public Administration 42 (1): 39–53.Google Scholar
  19. Hulsheger, U. R., and A. F. Schewe. 2011. “On the Costs and Benefits of Emotional Labor: A Meta-Analysis of Three Decades of Research.” Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 16 (3): 361–89.Google Scholar
  20. Jenkins, S., and C. Hazel. 2007. “Living with the Contradictions of Modernization? Emotional Management in the Teaching Profession.” Public Administration 85 (4): 979–1001.Google Scholar
  21. Jilke, S., B. Meuleman, and S. Van de Walle. 2015. “We Need to Compare, But How? Measurement Equivalence in Comparative Public Administration.” Public Administration Review 75 (1): 36–48.Google Scholar
  22. Kim, S., W. Vandenabeele, B. E. Wright, L. B. Andersen, F. P. Cerase, R. K. Christensen, and Céline Desmarais. 2013. “Investigating the Structure and Meaning of Public Service Motivation Across Populations: Developing an International Instrument and Addressing Issues of Measurement Invariance.” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 23 (1): 79–102.Google Scholar
  23. Kline, Rex B. 2010. Methodology in the Social Sciences: Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  24. Komporozos-Athanasiou, A., and M. Thompson. 2015. “The Role of Emotion in Enabling and Conditioning Public Deliberation Outcomes: A Sociological Investigation.” Public Administration 93 (4): 1138–51.Google Scholar
  25. Mastracci, Sharon H., Mary E. Guy, and Meredith A. Newman. 2012. Emotional Labor and Crisis Response: Working on the Razor’s Edge. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
  26. Milfont, T. L., and R. Fischer. 2010. “Testing Measurement Invariance Across Groups: Applications in Cross-Cultural Research.” International Journal of Psychological Research 3 (1): 111–21.Google Scholar
  27. Morris, J. A., and D. C. Feldman. 1996. “The Dimensions, Antecedents, and Consequences of Emotional Labor.” Academy of Management Review 21 (4): 986–1010.Google Scholar
  28. Rayner, Julie, and Alan Lawton. 2018. “Are We Being Served? Emotional Labour in Local Government in Victoria, Australia.” Australian Journal of Public Administration 77 (3): 360–74.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8500.12282.Google Scholar
  29. Roh, C. Y., M. Jae Moon, Seung-Bum Yang, and K. Jung. 2015. “Linking Emotional Labor, Public Service Motivation, and Job Satisfaction: Social Workers in Health Care Settings.” Social Work in Public Health 31 (2): 1–15.Google Scholar
  30. Rotter, Julian B. 1966. “Generalized Expectancies for Internal Versus External Control of Reinforcement.” Psychological Monographs: General & Applied 80 (1): 1–28.Google Scholar
  31. Schermelleh-Engel, K., H. Moosbrugger, and H. Müller. 2003. “Evaluating the Fit of Structural Equation Models: Tests of Significance and Descriptive Goodness-of-Fit Measures.” Methods of Psychological Research 8 (2): 23–74.Google Scholar
  32. Steenkamp, J.-B. E. M., and H. Baumgartner. 1998. “Assessing Measurement Invariance in Cross-National Consumer Research.” Journal of Consumer Research 25 (1): 78–90.Google Scholar
  33. Stenross, B., and S. Kleinman. 1989. “The Highs and Lows of Emotional Labor: Detectives’ Encounters with Criminals and Victim.” Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 17 (4): 435–52.Google Scholar
  34. Yang, Seung-Bum, and Mary E. Guy. 2015. “Gender Effects on Emotional Labor in Seoul Metropolitan Area.” Public Personnel Management 44 (1): 3–24.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seung-Bum Yang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mary E. Guy
    • 2
  • Sharon H. Mastracci
    • 3
  • Aisha Azhar
    • 4
  • Chih-Wei Hsieh
    • 5
  • Hyun Jung Lee
    • 6
  • Xiaojun Lu
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of Public AdministrationKonkuk UniversitySeoulSouth Korea
  2. 2.School of Public AffairsUniversity of Colorado DenverDenverUSA
  3. 3.Department of Political ScienceUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA
  4. 4.School of Governance and SocietyUniversity of Management and TechnologyLahorePakistan
  5. 5.Department of Public PolicyCity University of Hong KongKowloonHong Kong SAR
  6. 6.Department of Public AdministrationMyongJi UniversitySeoulSouth Korea
  7. 7.Department of Public Administration, School of International and Public AffairsShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations