Advertisement

Volunteers in the Middle of Cold War Ideological Struggles

  • Fernando Purcell
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter takes on the ideological dimensions of the Peace Corps’ extension. Its labors unfolded amid deep disputes that affected its efforts. To the degree that the Peace Corps’ efforts complemented local private and public initiatives, they generated support. Alternately, given the Cold War ideological framework that informed the paradigms of social intervention, they also generated rejection and suspicion. All these factors shaped the experiences of many volunteers and led to extreme situations in which specific projects and volunteers were expelled from universities and even from countries such as Bolivia and Peru, which barred the program altogether in the early 1970s. Nonetheless, the Peace Corps continues today. It has evolved over time, adapting to new political, social, and ideological contexts.

Keywords

Ideology Cold War Conflicts Accusations Espionage Violence Expulsion Universities Anti-Americanism 

Bibliography

  1. Azevedo, Cecília. 2008. Em Nome da América. Os Corpos da Paz no Brasil. Sao Paulo: Alameda.Google Scholar
  2. Bales, Fred and Jan Bales. 2007. Chilean Odyssey. The Peace Corps Letters of Fred Bales and Jan Stebing Bales, Bloomington: AuthorHouse.Google Scholar
  3. Boston Globe, Boston, September 20, 1969.Google Scholar
  4. Casals, Marcelo. 2010. El alba de una revolución. La izquierda y la construcción estratégica de la “vía chilena al socialismo”. 1956–1970, Santiago: LOM, 2010.Google Scholar
  5. Chicago Tribune, Chicago, June 30, 1967.Google Scholar
  6. “Chile Program Summary 1967–1972,” National Archives, College Park, Record Group 490, Country Plans, 1966–1985, box 10, folder “Chile 1967–1972.”Google Scholar
  7. Drinot, Paulo. 2012. “Creole Anti-Communism: Labor, the Peruvian Communist Party, and APRA, 1930–1934”, Hispanic American Historical Review, 92.4: 703–736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. El Siglo, Santiago, Chile, August 8, 1969.Google Scholar
  9. El Sur, Concepción, Chile, October 6, 1966a.Google Scholar
  10. El Sur, Concepción, Chile, October 14, 1966b.Google Scholar
  11. El Sur, Concepción, Chile, October 18, 1966c.Google Scholar
  12. El Sur, Concepción, Chile, October 19, 1966d.Google Scholar
  13. El Sur, Concepción, Chile, June 16, 1967a.Google Scholar
  14. El Sur, Concepción, Chile, June 17, 1967b.Google Scholar
  15. El Sur, Concepción, Chile, July 14, 1967c.Google Scholar
  16. El Sur, Concepción, Chile, August 1, 1967d.Google Scholar
  17. Ercilla, Santiago, Chile, September 14, 1966.Google Scholar
  18. “Face to Face: The Diary of a Peace Corps Volunteer in Bolivia by Stuart Goldschen” (n.d.), John F. Kennedy Library, Returned Peace Corps Volunteers, box 36, folder “Bolivia. Goldschen, Stuart. Diary of PC Volunteer: Face to Face.”Google Scholar
  19. Geidel, Molly. 2015. Peace Corps Fantasies: How Development Shaped the Global Sixties, Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  20. Labarca-Goddard, Eduardo. 1968. Chile invadido. Reportaje a la intromisión extranjera, Santiago: Editora Austral.Google Scholar
  21. La Prensa, Lima, Peru, November 12, 1963.Google Scholar
  22. Letter from Carlos Ríos to the Peace Corps in Lima, November 22, 1964, John F. Kennedy Library, Returned Peace Corps Volunteers, box 2, folder “Letters on the Death of John F. Kennedy, # 1.”Google Scholar
  23. Letter from Maurice Sterns to Richard Grisom, May 13, 1963, National Archives, College Park, Record Group 490, Country File 1962–1963, box 23, folder “Venezuela.”Google Scholar
  24. Letter from R. Sargent Shriver to Abraham Hershberg, August 4, 1965, National Archives, College Park, Record Group 490, Correspondence of the Peace Corps Director Relating to Latin America, 1961–1965, box 6, folder “March–December 1965”.Google Scholar
  25. McPherson, Allan. 2003. Yankee No! Anti-Americanism is U.S.-Latin American Relations, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Obrero y Campesino, Lima, Peru, October, 1963.Google Scholar
  27. “Overseas Evaluation Peru” by Julien R. Phillips, distributed May 24, 1968,” National Archives, College Park, Record Group 490, Program Evaluations, 1968–1969, box 6, folder “Peru 1968.”Google Scholar
  28. Palieraki, Eugenia. 2014. ¡La revolución ya viene! El MIR chileno en los años sesenta, Santiago: Lom.Google Scholar
  29. Palmer, David S. 1966. “Expulsion from a Peruvian University”, In Cultural Frontiers of the Peace Corps ed. Robert B. Textor, 243–270. Cambridge, Mass.: The M.I.T. Press. 1966.Google Scholar
  30. Peterson, Gary D. 2011. Tales from Colombia: The Deeds & Misdeeds of 41 Peace Corps Volunteers Who Answered President Kennedy’s Call to Serve, Fruit Heights, Utah: Paulary Publishing.Google Scholar
  31. “Pressure on Peace Corps in Peruvian Universities, October 15, 1963,” National Archives, College Park, Record Group 490, Country File 1962–1963, box 23, folder “Peru.”Google Scholar
  32. Punto Final, Santiago, Chile, suplemento a la edición No. 32, primera quincena, July, 1967.Google Scholar
  33. “Report on Peru University Incident,” National Archives, College Park, Record Group 490, Country File 1962–1963, box 23, folder “Peru.”Google Scholar
  34. Salvatore, Ricardo D. 2016. Disciplinary Conquest. U.S. Scholars in South America, 1900–1945, Durham and London: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  35. San Francisco Chronicle, San Francisco, May 8, 1958.Google Scholar
  36. Scanlon, Thomas J. 1997. Waiting for the Snow. The Peace Corps Papers of a Charter Volunteer, Chevy Chase: Posterity Press.Google Scholar
  37. Sheffield, Glenn F.1991. Peru and the Peace Corps, 1962–1968, Ann Harbor: Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Connecticut.Google Scholar
  38. Siekmeier, James F. 2000. “Sacrificial Llama? The Expulsion of the Peace Corps from Bolivia in 1971,” Pacific Historical Review, 69. 1 (February): 65–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Soto-Hidalgo, Javiera. 2015. Espía se ofrece. Acusaciones de intervencionismo contra Estados Unidos en Chile. 1964–1970, Santiago: Acto Editores.Google Scholar
  40. The New York Times, New York, June 4, 1965.Google Scholar
  41. The New York Times, New York, July 28, 1967.Google Scholar
  42. The New York Times, New York, March 6, 1969.Google Scholar
  43. The New York Times, New York, September 17, 1969.Google Scholar
  44. The New York Times, New York, September 20, 1969.Google Scholar
  45. “Training Evaluation. Colombia Small Business/Child & Family Development project, by Robert Joy,” distributed February 17, 1969, National Archives, College Park, Record Group 490, Training Evaluation Reports, 1964–1969, box 5, folder “Colombia In Country, 1969.”Google Scholar
  46. Última Hora, Santiago, Chile, June 18, 1965.Google Scholar
  47. Unidad, La Paz, Bolivia, March 30, 1963.Google Scholar
  48. Voz de la Democracia. Semanario del Partido Comunista de Colombia, Bogota, Colombia September 11–17, 1961.Google Scholar
  49. Washington Post, Washington, DC, November 11, 1963.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fernando Purcell
    • 1
  1. 1.Pontificia Universidad Católica de ChileSantiagoChile

Personalised recommendations