Advertisement

The Imposed 1963 Constitution, the Maiden Legislative and Executive Councils, and the Select Constitutional Committee

  • Hlengiwe Portia Dlamini
Chapter
Part of the African Histories and Modernities book series (AHAM)

Abstract

Chapter 4 explores how Britain was compelled to impose a constitution on Swaziland in 1963 owing to the collapse of the 1963 London Conference. The Constitution confined King Sobhuza II to cultural and traditional affairs, while excluding him from effective governance. This exclusion caused great concern for the monarchists and their White allies, who counted on the Swazi King to protect their investments and private property against Progressive onslaughts. The monarchists and Whites were as much against the Constitution as the Progressives, although for different reasons. The contestation of the 1963 Constitution did not stop Britain from proceeding with elections in June 1964. Sobhuza changed his mind and formed a political party—the Imbokodvo—despite hitherto having been opposed to such a move for its being ‘unSwazi’. His White allies formed the USA and, together, they entered into a coalition against the Progressives, and swept all the legislative seats in the elections. The overwhelming victory of the Imbokodvo/USA alliance made it possible for them to monopolize the Legislative Council and the Constitutional Committee. The elections enabled Sobhuza to find new faith in modern politics that he had so far perceived with suspicion.

References

Oral Interviews

  1. Interview with Prince Masitsela, Emafini, January 25, 2015.Google Scholar
  2. Interview with Prince Mfanasibili Dlamini, at Coates Valley, Manzini, March 7, 2014.Google Scholar

Archival Sources

  1. Swaziland National Archives Google Scholar
  2. SNA: Swaziland Government Gazette Extraordinary, Vol. III, Mbabane, Thursday January 2, 1964; No. 15.Google Scholar
  3. SNA: ‘Letter from Carl Todd to Swazilander’, Minutes of the Forth Reconstituted European Advisory Council Held October 15 and 16, 1963.Google Scholar
  4. SNA: Swaziland Legislative Council Official Report (Hansard), First Session, Sittings from November 9 and 14, 1964.Google Scholar

Newspaper Articles

  1. ‘Talks Begins with Smiles but End in Deadlock’, Times of Swaziland, February 15, 1963.Google Scholar
  2. ‘Constitutional Talks End’, Izwi Lama Swazi, February 23, 1963.Google Scholar
  3. ‘Todd on the Talk in United Kingdom: An Imposed Constitution Would Not Work’, Times of Swaziland, March 1, 1963.Google Scholar
  4. ‘Swaziland Constitution Announced, 8 Seats Reserved for Whites Out of 24 Elected Members’, Times of Swaziland, May 31, 1963.Google Scholar
  5. ‘Reactions to the Constitution: Whites Say Let’s Do Our Best to Make it Work’, Times of Swaziland, June 7, 1963.Google Scholar
  6. ‘Swaziland Constitution Announced’, Izwi Lama Swazi, June 8, 1963.Google Scholar
  7. ‘Todd Doomed to Same Eclipse as Welensky’, Times of Swaziland, July 12, 1963.Google Scholar
  8. ‘Todd: White Paper Turned Down by SNC: A New approach Suggested’, Times of Swaziland, August 30, 1963.Google Scholar
  9. ‘The Constitution: A Fresh Start Even Now’, Times of Swaziland, September 6, 1963.Google Scholar
  10. ‘SNC Petitions the Queen: Cable Sent to Sandy’, Times of Swaziland, September 6, 1963.Google Scholar
  11. ‘Make the Constitution Work: Urges Fletcher’, Times of Swaziland, September 13, 1963.Google Scholar
  12. ‘The Ngwane National Congress Rejects the Constitution’, Izwi Lama Swazi, October 5, 1963.Google Scholar
  13. ‘People Impressed by Verwoerd’s Offer Says Todd’, Times of Swaziland, October 25, 1963.Google Scholar
  14. ‘Ngwenyama’s Petition to the Commons: Wants Changes Made in the constitution’, Izwi Lama Swazi, November 30, 1963.Google Scholar
  15. ‘NNLC’s Reaction to Dr V’s Offer’, Times of Swaziland, December 13, 1963.Google Scholar
  16. ‘Constitution Now in Operation’, Times of Swaziland, January 3, 1964.Google Scholar
  17. ‘New Swaziland Constitution Comes into Force Today: Order in Council Published’, Times of Swaziland, January 3, 1964.Google Scholar
  18. ‘National Council to Reply to Sir Brian Next Week. The King’s Speech to Sir Brian Marwick’, Times of Swaziland, May 1, 1964.Google Scholar
  19. ‘Imbokodo Reply to Sir Brian’, Times of Swaziland, May 8, 1964.Google Scholar
  20. ‘In Africa Kings Are Leaders as Well as Kings: Imbokodo Reveals Itself, Attacks Sir Brian Marwick’, Times of Swaziland, May 8, 1964.Google Scholar
  21. ‘N.N.L.C. Chooses Candidates; Manifesto’, Times of Swaziland, May 15, 1964.Google Scholar
  22. ‘Marwick, A Farewell Message’, Times of Swaziland, April 24, 1964.Google Scholar
  23. ‘Strong Criticism of Country’s Political Direction: Sir Brian Hits Out Sharply in Last Big Speech’, Times of Swaziland, April 24, 1964.Google Scholar
  24. ‘Ngwenyama and Swazi Council Enter Politics’, Times of Swaziland, April 24, 1964.Google Scholar
  25. ‘Sir Brian to the King: This Is the Advice I Give to You. Preserve Your Office’, Times of Swaziland, April 24, 1964.Google Scholar
  26. ‘Zwane Objects to Council in Politics’, Times of Swaziland, April 24, 1964.Google Scholar
  27. ‘USA Takes All Four Seats on European Roll’, Times of Swaziland, June 19, 1964.Google Scholar
  28. ‘Clean Sweep for Sobhuza: All Elected Seats Go to Traditionalists’, Times of Swaziland, July 3, 1964.Google Scholar
  29. ‘Comments’, Times of Swaziland, July 19, 1964.Google Scholar
  30. ‘Sandys Replies to Political Parties: Test for Alleged Electoral Offences Lies in Courts’, Times of Swaziland, July 10, 1964.Google Scholar
  31. ‘Democratic Party Joins the Imbokodvo’, Times of Swaziland, April 23, 1965.Google Scholar
  32. ‘Proposals for Constitution Sent to London’, Times of Swaziland, March 11, 1966.Google Scholar
  33. ‘Student Leader Attacks Constitution’, Times of Swaziland, May 12, 1967.Google Scholar

Books and Journals

  1. Bischoff, P. H. ‘Why Swaziland Is Different: An Explanation of the Kingdom’s Position in Southern Africa’, The Journal of Modern African Studies, 26, 3 (1988), 457–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Booth, A. R. Swaziland: Tradition and Change in a Southern African Kingdom (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1983).Google Scholar
  3. Cowen, M. ‘Early Years of the Colonial Development Corporation: British State Enterprise Overseas During Late Colonialism’, African Affairs (1984), 63–75.Google Scholar
  4. Daniel, J. ‘The Political Economy of Colonial and Post-Colonial Swaziland’, South African Labour Bulletin 7, 6 (1982), 90–113.Google Scholar
  5. Daniel, J., and Vilane, J. ‘Swaziland: Political Crisis, Regional Dilemma’, Review of African Political Economy, 13, 35 (1986), 54–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Davis, C. J. ‘Blair Worden, Roundhead Reputations: The English Civil War and the Passions of Posterity’, Parliamentary History, 21, 3 (2002), 397–398.Google Scholar
  7. Dlamini, M. The Philosophy, Policies and Objectives of the Imbokodvo National Movement (Swaziland Printing and Publishing Company, 1972).Google Scholar
  8. Ezera, K. Constitutional Developments in Nigeria (London: Cambridge University Press, 1964).Google Scholar
  9. Hill, C. ‘Parliament and People in Seventeenth-Century England’, Past and Present, 92, (1981), 100–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hlandze, S. ‘The Evolution of Workers’ Consciousness in Swaziland: The Case of Usuthu Pulp Company, 1948–1963’, MA thesis, University of Swaziland, 2013.Google Scholar
  11. Kuper, H. Sobhuza II, Ngwenyama and King of Swaziland: The Story of an Hereditary Ruler and His Country (New York: Africana Publishing, 1978).Google Scholar
  12. Laschinger, M. ‘Roads to Independence: The Case of Swaziland.’ The World Today, 21, 11 (1965), 486–494.Google Scholar
  13. Lee, S. ‘A puzzle of Sovereignty’, 29–51, In N. Walker (ed.), Relocating Sovereignty (London: Routledge, 2018).Google Scholar
  14. Levin, R. When the Sleeping Grass Awakens: Land and Power in Swaziland (Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press, 1997).Google Scholar
  15. Lindahl, H. ‘Sovereignty and Symbolization’, Rechtstheorie, 28, 3 (1997), 347–371.Google Scholar
  16. MacMillan, H. ‘Swaziland: Decolonisation and the Triumph of “Tradition”’, The Journal of Modern African Studies, 23, 4 (1985), 643–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Matsebula, J. S. M. A History of Swaziland (Johannesburg: Longman Southern Africa Ltd., 1972).Google Scholar
  18. Mlambo, A. S. A History of Zimbabwe (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014.Google Scholar
  19. North, D. C., and Weingast, B. R. ‘Constitutions and Commitment: The Evolution of Institutions Governing Public Choice in Seventeenth-Century England’, The Journal of Economic History, 49, 4 (1989), 803–832.Google Scholar
  20. Nwabueze, B. O. A Constitutional History of Nigeria (London: C. Hurst and Company, 1982).Google Scholar
  21. Nyeko, B. ‘Swaziland and South Africa Since 1994: Reflections on Aspects of Post-Liberation Swazi Historiography’, From National Liberation to Democratic Renaissance in Southern Africa (2005).Google Scholar
  22. Potholm, C. P. ‘Changing Political Configuration in Swaziland’, The Journal of African Studies, 4, 9 (1966), 313–322.Google Scholar
  23. Potholm, C. P. ‘Changing Political Configuration in Swaziland’, The Journal of African Studies, 4, 3 (1966), 314–315.Google Scholar
  24. Raitt, I. ‘Operation “Green Belt” in Swaziland’, Royal United Services Institution. Journal, 109, 633 (1964), 40–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Reese, E. A. ‘Or to the People: Popular Sovereignty and the Power to Choose a Government’, Cardozo Law Review, 39, 6 (2018).Google Scholar
  26. Robison, R. E. Andrew Cohen and the Transfer of Power in Tropical Africa 1940– 1951 (Fondation nationale des sciences politiques, 1976).Google Scholar
  27. Rubin, L., and Stevens, R. P. ‘Swaziland: A Constitution Imposed’, Africa Report, 9, 4 (1964), 9.Google Scholar
  28. Stevens, R. P. ‘Swaziland Political Development’, The Journal of Modern African Studies, 1, 3 (1963), 327–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Stevens, R. P. Lesotho, Botswana and Swaziland: The Former High Commission Territories in Southern Africa (London: Pall Mall P, 1967).Google Scholar
  30. William, D. ‘The Making and Remaking of Commonwealth Constitutions’, International & Comparative Law Quarterly, 42, 1 (1993), 67–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Zwane, T. M. J. ‘The Struggle for Power in Swaziland’, Africa Today (1964), 4–6.Google Scholar

Internet Sources

  1. Historical Paper Research Archives, Collection Number AD 1715, News from Swaziland, July 15, 1963. http://www.historicalpapers.wits.ac.za/inventories/inv_pdfo/AD1715/AD1715–29-3-4-001-jpeg.pdf. Accessed January 22, 2015.
  2. http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1968/jul/05/swaziland-independence-bill. HANSARD 1803–2005 → 1960s → 1968 → July 1968 → 5 July 1968 → Commons Sitting → ORDERS OF THE DAY, SWAZILAND INDEPENDENCE BILL, HC Deb July 5, 1968, Vol. 767 cc1875-9031875. Accessed June 27, 2015.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hlengiwe Portia Dlamini
    • 1
  1. 1.University of the Free StateBloemfonteinSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations