Esophagus, Gastrointestinal Tract, and Pancreas

  • Xiaoqi LinEmail author
  • Ryan Hickey


Cytologic examination of specimens from fine needle aspiration (FNA), exfoliative brushings, and needle core biopsies (NCB) are essential tests in the diagnosis of esophageal, gastrointestinal, and pancreatic lesions, staging of malignancy, and follow-up of patients. The sensitivity and specificity of cytology are increased by the concurrent use of imaging studies, immunocytochemistry, and molecular studies. The interobserver agreement among cytopathologists in the diagnosis of malignancy of the solid pancreatic lesion is variable.


Esophagus Gastrointestinal tract Pancreas Cytomorphology Histology Radiology Immunohistochemistry 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern Memorial HospitalChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyDivision of Vascular Interventional RadiologyNew YorkUSA

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