Kidney, Adrenal Gland, and Paraganglia

  • Xiaoqi LinEmail author
  • Joseph F. Peevey
  • Ali Habib
  • Ronald Mora
  • Ahsun Riaz


Fine needle aspiration (FNA) has high sensitivity (80–100%), specificity (91.9–100%), positive predictive value (89.9%), negative predictive value (94%), and efficacy (92.2%) in the diagnosis of malignant neoplasms of the kidney. As such, cytologic evaluation of renal lesions provides accurate and critical information for appropriate patient management.


Kidney Cytomorphology Histology Radiology Immunohistochemistry 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiaoqi Lin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Joseph F. Peevey
    • 2
  • Ali Habib
    • 3
  • Ronald Mora
    • 4
  • Ahsun Riaz
    • 5
  1. 1.Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern Memorial HospitalChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Anatomic and Clinical PathologyOSF St. Anthony Medical CenterRockfordUSA
  3. 3.Department of RadiologyNorthwestern UniversityChicagoUSA
  4. 4.Department of RadiologySection of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Northwestern UniversityChicagoUSA
  5. 5.Department of PathologyNorthwestern MedicineChicagoUSA

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