Advertisement

Methodology of Headache Measurement

  • Timothy J. SteinerEmail author
  • Lars Jacob Stovner
Chapter
Part of the Headache book series (HEAD)

Abstract

This chapter builds on Chap.  6, discussing headache measurement in populations: prevalence estimation and quantification of burden. It describes the HARDSHIP questionnaire, an instrument developed specifically for enquiry into headache prevalence and headache-attributed burden in population-based studies. A very broad base of expert opinion contributed to its evolution and question choice. It has undergone testing in many cultures and settings, 20 countries and 19 languages.

HARDSHIP is a structured questionnaire which may be administered by medical or (more usually) trained lay interviewers. It has a modular design: separate question sets cover demographic characteristics, screen for caseness (headache disorder present or not), diagnose headache type and address each of the several quantifiable components of burden. This design renders it highly amenable to adaptation: any of the burden modules may be included or not, according to study purpose, time constraints, resources available and cultural sensitivities.

Keywords

Headache disorders Epidemiology Population-based studies Prevalence Burden of disease Impact Cost of illness Global Campaign against Headache 

References

  1. 1.
    Steiner TJ. Lifting The Burden: the global campaign against headache. Lancet Neurol. 2004;3:204–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Steiner TJ. Lifting The Burden: the global campaign to reduce the burden of headache worldwide. J Headache Pain. 2005;6:373–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Steiner TJ, Birbeck GL, Jensen R, Katsarava Z, Martelletti P, Stovner LJ. Lifting The Burden: the first 7 years. J Headache Pain. 2010;11:451–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Steiner TJ, Birbeck GL, Jensen R, Katsarava Z, Martelletti P, Stovner LJ. The global campaign, World Health Organization and Lifting The Burden: collaboration in action. J Headache Pain. 2011;12:273–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lifting The Burden. The Global Campaign against Headache. http://www.l-t-b.org.
  6. 6.
    Katsarava Z, Kukava M, Mirvelashvili E, Tavadze A, Dzagnidze A, Djibuti M, Steiner TJ. A pilot methodological validation study for a population-based survey of the prevalences of migraine, tension-type headache and chronic daily headache in the country of Georgia. J Headache Pain. 2007;8:77–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rao GN, Kulkarni GB, Gururaj G, Rajesh K, Subbakrishna DK, Steiner TJ, Stovner LJ. The burden of headache disorders in India: methodology and questionnaire validation for a community-based survey in Karnataka state. J Headache Pain. 2012;13:543–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yu S-Y, Cao X-T, Zhao G, Yang X-S, Qiao X-Y, Fang Y-N, Feng J-C, Liu R-Z, Steiner TJ. The burden of headache in China: validation of diagnostic questionnaire for a population-based survey. J Headache Pain. 2011;12:141–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ayzenberg I, Katsarava Z, Mathalikov R, Chernysh M, Osipova V, Tabeeva G, Steiner TJ. The burden of headache in Russia: validation of the diagnostic questionnaire in a population-based sample. Eur J Neurol. 2011;18:454–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Herekar AD, Herekar AA, Ahmad A, Uqaili UL, Ahmed B, Effendi J, Alvi SZ, Steiner TJ. The burden of headache disorders in Pakistan: methodology of a population-based nationwide study, and questionnaire validation. J Headache Pain. 2013;14:73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zebenigus M, Tekle-Haimanot R, Worku DK, Thomas H, Steiner TJ. The prevalence of primary headache disorders in Ethiopia. J Headache Pain. 2016;17:110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mbewe E, Zairemthiama P, Yeh H-H, Paul R, Birbeck GL, Steiner TJ. The epidemiology of primary headache disorders in Zambia: a population-based door-to-door survey. J Headache Pain. 2015;16:30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Manandhar K, Risal A, Steiner TJ, Holen A, Koju R, Linde M. Estimating the prevalence and burden of major disorders of the brain in Nepal: methodology of a nationwide population-based study. J Headache Pain. 2014;15:52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Andrée C, Stovner LJ, Steiner TJ, Barré J, Katsarava Z, Lainez JM, Lanteri-Minet M, Mick G, Rastenyte D, Ruiz de la Torre E, Tassorelli C, Vriezen P, Lampl C. The Eurolight project: the impact of primary headache disorders in Europe. Description of methods. J Headache Pain. 2011;12:541–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Stovner LJ, Al Jumah M, Birbeck GL, Gururaj G, Jensen R, Katsarava Z, Queiroz LP, Scher AI, Tekle-Haimanot R, Wang SJ, Steiner TJ. The methodology of population surveys of headache prevalence, burden and cost: principles and recommendations from the global campaign against headache. J Headache Pain. 2014;15:5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Steiner TJ, Gururaj G, Andrée C, Katsarava Z, Ayzenberg I, Yu SY, Al Jumah M, Tekle-Haimanot R, Birbeck GL, Herekar A, Linde M, Mbewe E, Manandhar K, Risal A, Jensen R, Queiroz LP, Scher AI, Wang SJ, Stovner LJ. Diagnosis, prevalence estimation and burden measurement in population surveys of headache: presenting the HARDSHIP questionnaire. J Headache Pain. 2014;15:3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Classification Committee of the International Headache Society. The international classification of headache disorders, 3rd edition. Cephalalgia. 2018;38:1–211.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Stovner LJ, Hagen K, Jensen R, Katsarava Z, Lipton R, Scher A, Steiner TJ, Zwart JA. The global burden of headache: a documentation of headache prevalence and disability worldwide. Cephalalgia. 2007;27:193–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lipton RB, Stewart WF, Sawyer J, Edmeads JG. Clinical utility of an instrument assessing migraine disability: the Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) questionnaire. Headache. 2001;41:854–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Steiner TJ, Lipton RB on behalf of Lifting The Burden: The Global Campaign against Headache. The Headache-Attributed Lost Time (HALT) indices: measures of burden for clinical management and population-based research. J Headache Pain. 2018;19:12.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Selekler MH, Gökmen G, Steiner TJ. Productivity impact of headache on a heavy-manufacturing workforce in Turkey. J Headache Pain. 2013;14:88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yu S, He M, Liu R, Feng J, Qiao X, Yang X, Cao X, Zhao G, Fang Y, Steiner TJ. Headache yesterday in China: a new approach to estimating the burden of headache, applied in a general-population survey in China. Cephalalgia. 2013;33:1211–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Andrée C, Steiner TJ, Barré J, Katsarava Z, Lainez JM, Lampl C, Lantéri-Minet M, Rastenyte D, Ruiz de la Torre E, Tassorelli C, Stovner LJ. Headache yesterday in Europe. J Headache Pain. 2014;15:33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ayzenberg I, Katsarava Z, Sborowski A, Obermann M, Chernysh M, Osipova V, Tabeeva G, Steiner TJ. Headache yesterday in Russia: its prevalence and impact, and their application in estimating the national burden attributable to headache disorders. J Headache Pain. 2015;16:7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Steiner TJ, Rao GN, Kulkarni GB, Gururaj G, Stovner LJ. Headache yesterday in Karnataka state, India: prevalence, impact and cost. J Headache Pain. 2016;17:74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    da Rocha NS, Power MJ, Bushnell DM, Fleck MP. The EUROHIS-QOL 8-item index: comparative psychometric properties to its parent WHOQOL-BREF. Value Health. 2012;15:449–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Office for National Statistics. First ONS annual experimental subjective well-being results. London: ONS; 2012. http://www.ons.gov.uk.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lampl C, Steiner TJ, Mueller T, Mirvelashvili E, Djibuti M, Kukava M, Dzagnidze A, Jensen R, Stovner LJ, Katsarava Z. Will (or can) people pay for headache care in a poor country? J Headache Pain. 2012;13:67–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Linde M, Gustavsson A, Stovner LJ, Steiner TJ, Barré J, Katsarava Z, Lainez JM, Lampl C, Lantéri-Minet M, Rastenyte D, Ruiz de la Torre E, Tassorelli C, Andrée C. The cost of headache disorders in Europe: the Eurolight project. Eur J Neurol. 2012;19:703–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hu XH, Markson LE, Lipton RB, Stewart WF, Berger ML. Burden of migraine in the United States. Disability and economic costs. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159:813–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Neuromedicine and Movement ScienceNTNU Norwegian University of Science and TechnologyTrondheimNorway
  2. 2.Division of Brain SciencesImperial College LondonLondonUK
  3. 3.Norwegian Advisory Unit on Headaches, Department of Neurology and Clinical NeurophysiologySt Olavs University HospitalTrondheimNorway

Personalised recommendations