Methodology of Headache Measurement

  • Timothy J. SteinerEmail author
  • Lars Jacob Stovner
Part of the Headache book series (HEAD)


This chapter builds on Chap.  6, discussing headache measurement in populations: prevalence estimation and quantification of burden. It describes the HARDSHIP questionnaire, an instrument developed specifically for enquiry into headache prevalence and headache-attributed burden in population-based studies. A very broad base of expert opinion contributed to its evolution and question choice. It has undergone testing in many cultures and settings, 20 countries and 19 languages.

HARDSHIP is a structured questionnaire which may be administered by medical or (more usually) trained lay interviewers. It has a modular design: separate question sets cover demographic characteristics, screen for caseness (headache disorder present or not), diagnose headache type and address each of the several quantifiable components of burden. This design renders it highly amenable to adaptation: any of the burden modules may be included or not, according to study purpose, time constraints, resources available and cultural sensitivities.


Headache disorders Epidemiology Population-based studies Prevalence Burden of disease Impact Cost of illness Global Campaign against Headache 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Neuromedicine and Movement ScienceNTNU Norwegian University of Science and TechnologyTrondheimNorway
  2. 2.Division of Brain SciencesImperial College LondonLondonUK
  3. 3.Norwegian Advisory Unit on Headaches, Department of Neurology and Clinical NeurophysiologySt Olavs University HospitalTrondheimNorway

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