Headache, Functional Impact and Environment

  • Timothy J. SteinerEmail author
  • Lars Jacob Stovner
Part of the Headache book series (HEAD)


Recent improvements in the methodology of population-based studies have led not only to better estimates of prevalence but also to better, more inclusive descriptions of headache-attributed burden. Yet it is still not certain that existing methods even recognize, let alone adequately describe, all the consequences of living with headache.

The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), a framework created for this purpose, provides comprehensive descriptions not only of disease-imposed difficulties in functioning but also of relevant environmental factors that may have impact—either as facilitators or barriers—upon these difficulties.

The methodology, however, is complex and resource-consuming, not to be undertaken without good reason. Yet people with headache may be well served if headache disorders can be brought into this framework, and this chapter considers how this might be done.


Headache disorders Burden of disease Functional impact Environment Living with disease International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Neuromedicine and Movement ScienceNTNU Norwegian University of Science and TechnologyTrondheimNorway
  2. 2.Division of Brain SciencesImperial College LondonLondonUK
  3. 3.Norwegian Advisory Unit on Headaches, Department of Neurology and Clinical NeurophysiologySt Olavs University HospitalTrondheimNorway

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