Advertisement

Applications of Synthetic Seed Technology for Propagation, Storage, and Conservation of Orchid Germplasms

  • Saikat GantaitEmail author
  • Monisha Mitra
Chapter

Abstract

A synthetic seed is defined as an artificially encapsulated somatic embryo (protocorm-like bodies in case of orchids) or meristematic tissue (shoot tips, nodal segments, corm, and bulb) that portrays the role of a seed and has the proficiency of germinating into complete plantlets. Synthetic seed technology is an optimistic approach to preserve and clonally propagate different species of orchids that can be endangered or possess high esthetic value or in respect to economical and medicinal prominence which is covered extensively in this chapter. It aids as the most conventional and genuine means for generating plant propagules under in vivo conditions. Under ex vitro conditions, there is positive enhancement of the large-scale production of orchid species by bypassing the process of acclimatization. Synthetic seed technology positively implements the germplasm exchange through short-term storage. Cryopreservation is a constructive method for long-term germplasm conservation of plant propagules at ultralow temperature. Molecular marker technology is now an upcoming advanced practice to sample the germplasm systematically. Minimal progress has been made in the field of synthetic seed technology; there are still many challenges to make the technique more practical and feasible especially for the farmers and producers. The inadequacies are required to be surveyed extensively and solved so that this technology can be utilized in a long-term basis keeping in mind the principles of sustainable development and conservation.

Keywords

Calcium chloride Cryopreservation Encapsulation Encapsulation-desiccation Encapsulation-vitrification Germplasm storage Protocorm-like body Shoot tip Sodium alginate 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge the e-library assistance from Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, West Bengal, India. We further are thankful to the anonymous reviewers and the editor of this article for their critical comments and suggestions on the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest Declared none.

References

  1. Agnihotri RK, Mishra J, Nandi SK (2009) Improving in vitro shoot multiplication and rooting and subsequent field evaluation of genetically uniform regenerants of Dendrocalamus hamiltonii. Acta Physiol Plant 31:961–967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmad N, Anis M (2010) Direct plant regeneration from encapsulated nodal segments of Vitex negundo. Biol Plant 54:748–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Antony JJJ, Sinniah UR, Keng CL, Pobathy R, Khoddamzadeh AA, Subramaniam S (2011) Selected potential encapsulation-dehydration parameters on ‘Dendrobium’ bobby messina protocorm-like bodies using TTC analysis. Aust J Crop Sci 5:1817–1822Google Scholar
  4. Ara H, Jaiswal U, Jaiswal VS (2000) Synthetic seed: prospects and limitations. Curr Sci 78:1438–1444Google Scholar
  5. Bapat VA, Mhatre M, Rao PS (1987) Propagation of Morus indica L. (mulberry) by encapsulated shoot buds. Plant Cell Rep 6:393–395PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Bekheet SA, Taha HS, Saker MM, Solliman ME (2007) Application of cryopreservation technique for in vitro grown date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultures. J Appl Sci Res 3:859–866Google Scholar
  7. Bhattacharyya P, Kumar V, van Staden J (2018) In vitro encapsulation based short term storage and assessment of genetic homogeneity in regenerated Ansellia africana (Leopard orchid) using gene targeted molecular markers. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 133:299–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blandino A, Macías M, Cantero D (2000) Glucose oxidase release from calcium alginate gel capsules. Enzym Microb Technol 27:319–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Borner A (2006) Preservation of plant genetic resources in the biotechnology era. Biotechnol J 1:1393–1404PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Bustam S, Sinniah UR, Kadir MA, Zaman FQ, Subramaniam S (2013) Selection of optimal stage for protocorm-like bodies and production of artificial seeds for direct regeneration on different media and short term storage of Dendrobium Shavin White. Plant Growth Regul 69:215–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cameron SI (2008) Plant tissue culture gelling agents and supports: history, development and function. In: Teixeira da Silva JA (ed) Floriculture, ornamental and plant biotechnology: advances and topical issues, vol V, 1st edn. Global Science Books Ltd, Isleworth, pp 171–190Google Scholar
  12. Capuano G, Piccioni E, Standardi A (1998) Effect of different treatments on the conversion of M.26 apple rootstock synthetic seeds obtained from encapsulated apical and axillary micropropagated buds. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 73:289–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cheruvathur MK, Kumar GK, Thomas TD (2013) Somatic embryogenesis and synthetic seed production in Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 113:63–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chettri Das M, Kumaria S, Tandon P (2011) Storage and high conversion frequency of encapsulated protocorm-like bodies of Cymbidium devonianum (orchid). J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 86:611–615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Corrie S, Tandon P (1993) Propagation of Cymbidium giganteum Wall. Through high frequency conversion of encapsulated protocorm under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Indian J Exp Biol 31:61–64Google Scholar
  16. da Silva ALS, Moraes-Fernandes MI, Fereira AG (2000) Ontogenetic events in androgenesis of Brazilian barley genotypes. Rev Brazil Biol 60:315–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Danso KE, Ford-Llyod BV (2003) Encapsulation of nodal cuttings and shoot tips for storage and exchange of cassava germplasm. Plant Cell Rep 21:718–725PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Datta KB, Kanjilal B, De Sarker D (1999) Artificial seed technology: development of a protocol in Geodorum densiflorum (Lam) Schltr.—an endangered orchid. Curr Sci 76:1142–1145Google Scholar
  19. Dehmer K (2005) Identification of genetic diversity as a precondition of efficient preservation in genebanks. Schr Genet Resour 24:1–6Google Scholar
  20. Faisal M, Anis M (2007) Regeneration of plants from alginate-encapsulated shoots of Tylophora indica (Burm. F.) Merrill., an endangered medicinal plant. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 82:351–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gantait S, Sinniah UR (2012) Rapid micropropagation of monopodial orchid hybrid (Aranda Wan Chark Kuan ‘Blue’× Vanda coerulea Grifft. ex. Lindl.) through direct induction of protocorm-like bodies from leaf segments. Plant Growth Regul 68:129–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gantait S, Sinniah UR (2013) Storability, post-storage conversion and genetic stability assessment of alginate-encapsulated shoot tips of monopodial orchid hybrid Aranda Wan Chark Kuan ‘Blue’ × Vanda coerulea Grifft. ex. Lindl. Plant Biotechnol Rep 7:257–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gantait S, Bustam S, Sinniah UR (2012) Alginate-encapsulation, short-term storage and plant regeneration from protocorm-like bodies of Aranda Wan Chark Kuan ‘Blue’ × Vanda coerulea Grifft. ex. Lindl. (Orchidaceae). Plant Growth Regul 68:303–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gantait S, Kundu S, Ali N, Sahu NC (2015) Synthetic seed production of medicinal plants: a review on influence of explants, encapsulation agent and matrix. Acta Physiol Plant 37:98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gantait S, Sinniah UR, Shukla G, Sahu NC (2017) Cryoconservation methods for extended storage of plant genetic resources. In: Ansari AA, Gill SS, Abbas ZK, Naeem M (eds) Plant biodiversity: monitoring, assessment and conservation. CAB International, Oxfordshire, pp 454–468Google Scholar
  26. Gogoi K, Kumaria S, Tandon P (2013) Cryopreservation of Cymbidium eburneum Lindl. and C. hookerianum Rchb. f., two threatened and vulnerable orchids via encapsulation–dehydration. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol-Plant 49:248–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gray DJ, Purohit A (1991) Somatic embryogenesis and development of synthetic seed technology. Crit Rev Plant Sci 10:33–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Haque SM, Ghosh B (2017) Regeneration of cytologically stable plants through dedifferentiation, redifferentiation, and artificial seeds in Spathoglottis plicata Blume. (Orchidaceae). Hort Plant J 3:199–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hirai D, Sakai A (2000) Cryopreservation of in vitro-grown meristems of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) by encapsulation vitrification. In: Engelmann F, Takagi H (eds) Cryopreservation of tropical plant germplasm, current research progress and application. JIRCAS-IPGRI, Rome, pp 205–211Google Scholar
  30. Ilan A, Ziv M, Halevy AH (1995) Propagation and corm development of Brodiaea in liquid cultures. Sci Hortic 63:101–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ishii Y, Takamura T, Goi M, Tanaka M (1998) Callus induction and somatic embryogenesis of Phalaenopsis. Plant Cell Rep 17:446–450PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Jokipii S, Ryynanenb L, Kallioc PT, Aronenb T, Haggman H (2004) A cryopreservation method maintaining the genetic fidelity of a model forest tree, Populus tremula L.× Populus tremuloides Michx. Plant Sci 166:799–806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jung SJ, Yoon ES, Jeong JH, Choi YE (2004) Enhanced post-germinative growth of encapsulated somatic embryos of Siberian ginseng by carbohydrate addition of the encapsulation matrix. Plant Cell Rep 23:365–370PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Khoddamzadeh AA, Sinniah UR, Kadir MA, Kadzimin SB, Mahmood M, Subramaniam S (2011a) Establishment of a short-term storage method via encapsulation of protocorm-like bodies in Phalaenopsis bellina (Rchb.f.) Christenson. Seed Sci Technol 39:697–702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Khoddamzadeh AA, Sinniah UR, Lynch P, Kadir MA, Kadzimin SB, Mahmood M (2011b) Cryopreservation of protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) of Phalaenopsis bellina (Rchb. f.) Christenson by encapsulation-dehydration. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 107:471–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Khor E, Loh CS (2005) Artificial seeds. In: Applications of cell immobilisation biotechnology. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 527–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Khor E, Ng WF, Loh CS (1998) Two-coat system for encapsulation of Spathoglottis plicata (Orchidaceae) seeds and protocorms. Biotechnol Bioeng 59:635–639PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Klaocheed S, Rittirat S, Thammasiri K, Prasertsongskun S (2018) Alginate-encapsulation, short-term storage and plantlet regeneration from encapsulated protocorm-like bodies (plbs) of Cymbidium finlaysonianum Lindl.: an endangered orchid of Thailand. Walailak J Sci Technol 15:725–737Google Scholar
  39. Kumaria S, Corrie S, Sharma A, Tandon P (2005) In-vitro conservation of some commercially important orchids of North-East India. Int J For Usuf Mngt 6:36–40Google Scholar
  40. Kundu S, Gantait S (2018) Thidiazuron-induced protocorm-like bodies in orchid: progress and prospects. In: Ahmad N, Faisal M (eds) Thidiazuron: from urea derivative to plant growth regulator, vol 1. Springer, Singapore, pp 273–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lurswijidjarus W, Thammasiri K (2004) Cryopreservation of shoot tips of Dendrobium Walter Oumae by encapsulation/dehydration. Sci Asia 30:293–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mandal J, Pattnaik S, Chand PK (2000) Alginate encapsulation of axillary buds of Ocimum americanum L. (Hoary basil), O. basilicum (sweet basil), O. gratissium (shrubby basil) and O. sanctum (sacred basil). In Vitro Cell Dev Biol-Plant 36:287–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mandal AB, Thomas VA, Elanchezhian R (2007) RAPD pattern of Costus speciosus Koen ex. Retz., an important medicinal plant from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Curr Sci 93:369–373Google Scholar
  44. Martin KP (2003) Clonal propagation, encapsulation and reintroduction of Ipsea malabarica (Reichb. f.) J. D. Hook., an endangered orchid. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 39:322–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Merritt DJ, Hay FR, Swarts ND, Sommerville KD, Dixon KW (2014) Ex situ conservation of orchid germplasm. Int J Plant Sci 175:46–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Moges AD, Karam NS, Shibli RA (2004) Cryopreservation of African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.) shoot tips. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 40:389–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mohanraj R, Ananthan R, Bai VN (2009) Production of synthetic seeds in Coelogynus breviscapa Lindl. Asian J Biotechnol 1:124–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mohanty P, Das MC, Kumaria S, Tandon P (2012) High-efficiency cryopreservation of the medicinal orchid Dendrobium nobile Lindl. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 109:297–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mohanty P, Nongkling P, Das MC, Kumaria S, Tandon P (2013a) Short-term storage of alginate-encapsulated protocorm-like bodies of Dendrobium nobile Lindl.: an endangered medicinal orchid from North-east India. 3 Biotech 3:235–239PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Mohanty P, Das MC, Kumaria S, Tandon P (2013b) Cryopreservation of pharmaceutically important orchid Dendrobium chrysanthum Wall. ex Lindl. using vitrification based method. Acta Physiol Plant 35:1373–1379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bio assays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 15:473–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Murashige T (1978) The impact of plant tissue culture on agriculture. In: Thorpe TA (ed) Frontiers of plant tissue culture: international association for plant tissue culture. University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada, pp 15–26Google Scholar
  53. Nagananda GS, Satishchandra N, Rajath S (2011) Regeneration of encapsulated protocorm like bodies of medicinally important vulnerable orchid Flickingeria nodosa (Dalz.) Seidenf. Int J Bot 7:310–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Nhut DT, Tien TNT, Huong MTN, Hien NTT, Huyen PX, Luan VQ, Teixeira da Silva JA (2005) Artificial seeds for propagation and preservation of Cymbidium spp. Prop Orn Plant 5:67–73Google Scholar
  55. Norstog K (1979) Embryo culture as a tool in the study of comparative and developmental morphology. In: Sharp WR, Larsen PO, Paddock EF, Raghavan V (eds) Plant cell and tissue culture: principles and applications. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, OH, pp 179–202Google Scholar
  56. Onishi N, Sakamoto Y, Hirosawa T (1994) Synthetic seeds as an application of mass production of somatic embryos. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 39:137–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ozudogru EA, Kirdok E, Kaya E, Capuana M, De Carlo A, Engelmann F (2011) Medium-term conservation of redwood [Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl.] in vitro shoot cultures and encapsulated buds. Sci Hortic 127:431–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Pehwal A, Vij SP, Pathak P, Attri LK (2012) Augmented shelf-life and regeneration competence of activated charcoal (AC) supplemented synthetic seeds in Cymbidium pendulum (Roxb.) Sw. Curr Bot 3:30–34Google Scholar
  59. Piccioni E (1997) Plantlets from encapsulated micropropagated buds of M.26 apple rootstock. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 47:255–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Pinker I, Abdel-Rahman SSA (2005) Artificial seed for propagation of Dendranthema × grandiflora (Ramat.). Prop Orn Plant 5:186–191Google Scholar
  61. Pitoyo A, Anggarwulan E, Ariza I (2017) Effects of encapsulation matrix on physical properties and germination viability of calcium-alginate encapsulated plbs of Grammatophyllum scriptum. Cell Biol Dev 1:36–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Poobathy R, Xavier R, Sinniah UR, Subramaniam S (2013) Molecular stability of protocorm-like bodies of Dendrobium sonia-28 after encapsulation-dehydration and vitrification. Aust J Crop Sci 7:189–195Google Scholar
  63. Pradhan S, Tiruwa B, Subedee BR, Pant B (2014) In vitro germination and propagation of threatened medicinal orchid, Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) Sw. through artificial seed. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 4:971–976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pradhan S, Tiruwa B, Subedee BR, Pant B (2016) Efficient plant regeneration of Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) Sw., a threatened orchid of Nepal through artificial seed technology. Am J Plant Sci 7:1964–1974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rai MK, Asthana P, Singh SK, Jaiswal VS, Jaiswal U (2009) The encapsulation technology in fruit plants—a review. Biotechnol Adv 27:671–679PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Redenbaugh K, Walker K (1990) Role of artificial seeds in alfalfa breeding. In: Bhojwani SS (ed) Plant tissue culture: applications and limitations. developments crop science. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 102–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Redenbaugh K, Slade D, Viss P, Fujii JAA (1987) Synthetic seed technology for mass cloning of crop plants: problems and perspectives. HortSci 22:796–814Google Scholar
  68. Redenbaugh K, Fujii JA, Slade D (1991) ‘Synthetic seed technology’ in scale-up and automation in plant propagation. In: Vasil IK (ed) Cell culture and somatic cell genetics of plants. Academic, New York, NY, pp 35–74Google Scholar
  69. Redenbaugh K, Fujii JA, Slade D (1993) Hydrated coatings form synthetic seeds. In: Redenbaugh K (ed) Synseeds: application of synthetic seeds to crop improvement. CRC, Boca Raton, FL, pp 305–327Google Scholar
  70. Saiprasad GVS (2001) Artificial seeds and their applications. Resonance 6:39–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Saiprasad GVS, Polisetty R (2003) Propagation of three orchid genera using encapsulated protocorm-like bodies. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 39:42–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sakai A, Kobayashi S, Oyiyama I (1990) Cryopreservation of nucellar cells of navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osb. var. brasiliensis Tanka) by vitrification. Plant Cell Rep 9:30–33PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Sarmah DK, Borthakur M, Borua PK (2010) Artificial seed production from encapsulated PLBs regenerated from leaf base of Vanda coerulea Grifft. ex. Lindl. - an endangered orchid. Curr Sci 98:686–690Google Scholar
  74. Scocchi A, Faloci M, Medina R, Olmos S, Mroginski L (2004) Plant recovery of cryopreserved apical meristem-tips of Melia azedarach L. using encapsulation/dehydration and assessment of their genetic stability. Euphytica 135:29–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sharma A, Tandon P, Kumar A (1992) Regeneration of Dendrobium wardianum Warner (Orchidaceae) from synthetic seeds. Indian J Exp Biol 30:747–748Google Scholar
  76. Sharma S, Shahzad A, Jan N, Sahai A (2009a) In vitro studies on shoot regeneration through various explants and alginate-encapsulated nodal segments of Spilanthes mauritiana DC., an endangered medicinal herb. Int J Plant Dev Biol 3:56–61Google Scholar
  77. Sharma S, Shahzad A, Sahai A (2009b) Artificial seeds for propagation and preservation of Spilanthes acmella (L.) Murr., a threatened pesticidal plant species. Int J Plant Dev Biol 3:62–64Google Scholar
  78. Sharma S, Shahzad A, Teixeira da Silva JA (2013) Synseed technology—a complete synthesis. Biotechnol Adv 31(2):186–207PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. Singh KK (2008) In vitro plant regeneration of an endangered Sikkim Himalayan rhododendron (R. maddeni Hook. F.) from alginate-encapsulated shoot tips. Biotechnol 7:144–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Singh AK, Sharma M, Varshney R, Agarwal SS, Bansal KC (2006) Plant regeneration from alginate to encapsulated shoot tips of Phyllanthus amarus Schum and Thonn, a medicinally important plant species. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol-Plant 42:109–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sommerville KD, Siemon JP, Wood CB, Offord CA (2008) Simultaneous encapsulation of seed and mycorrhizal fungi for long-term storage and propagation of terrestrial orchids. Aust J Bot 56:609–615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Soneji JR, Rao PS, Mhatre M (2002) Germination of synthetic seeds of pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr.). Plant Cell Rep 20:891–894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Standardi A, Piccioni E (1998) Recent perspectives on synthetic seed technology using nonembryogenic in vitro-derived explants. Int J Plant Sci 159:968–978Google Scholar
  84. Tandon P, Sharma A, Corrie S, Kumaria S (1994) Clonal propagation and “synthetic seed” production of some rare ornamental orchids of north-east India. Abstracts of the Twenty-Fourth International Horticultural Congress. International Society for Horticultural Science, Kyoto, p 139Google Scholar
  85. Teixeira da Silva JA (2012) Production of synseed for hybrid Cymbidium using protocorm-like bodies. J Fruit Ornamental Plant Res 20:135–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Teixeira da Silva JA (2013) Cryopreservation of hybrid Cymbidium protocorm-like bodies by encapsulation–dehydration and vitrification. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 49:690–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Texeira Da Silva JA, Zeng S, Galdiano RF, Dobránszki J, Cardoso JC, Vendrame WA (2014) In vitro conservation of Dendrobium germplasm. Plant Cell Rep 33:1413–1423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Texeira Da Silva JA, Cardoso JC, Dobránszki J, Zeng S (2015) Dendrobium micropropagation: a review. Plant Cell Rep 34:671–704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Vij SP, Kaur P (1994) Synthetic/somatic seeds in orchids. In: Vij SP (ed) Chandigarh: Proceedings of the Orchid Society of India, pp 81–82Google Scholar
  90. Vij SP, Kaur P, Gupta A (2001) “Synseeds” and their utility in orchids: Dendrobium densiflorum Lindl. Phytomorphology 51:159–165Google Scholar
  91. Wang WG, Wang SH, Wu XA, Jin XY, Chen F (2007) High frequency plantlet regeneration from callus and artificial seed production of rock plant Pogonatherum paniceum (Lam.) Hack. (Poacaecae). Sci Hortic 113:196–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. West TP, Preece JP (2009) Bulk alginate encapsulation of Hibiscus moscheutos nodal segments. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 97:345–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Worrachottiyanon W, Bunnag S (2018) Cryopreservation of Cymbidium finlaysonianum Lindl. by encapsulation-dehydration method. Songklanakarin J Sci Technol 40:682–691Google Scholar
  94. Yin M-H, Hong S-R (2009) Cryopreservation of Dendrobium candidum Wall ex Lindl. protocorm-like bodies by encapsulation-vitrification. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 98:179–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Yin LL, Poobathy R, James J, Julkifle AL, Subramaniam S (2011) Preliminary investigation of cryopreservation by encapsulation-dehydration technique on Shooting Star orchid hybrid. Afr J Biotechnol 10:4665–4672CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Crop Research Unit (Genetics and Plant Breeding)Bidhan Chandra Krishi ViswavidyalayaMohanpur, NadiaIndia
  2. 2.Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Faculty of AgricultureBidhan Chandra Krishi ViswavidyalayaMohanpur, NadiaIndia

Personalised recommendations