Congenital Heart Disease



All congenital heart disease can be understood by systematic examination of their component parts and how they relate one to the other, being known as sequential segmental analysis. Secondary changes such as muscular hypertrophy or fibrosis may obscure some features, but the basic abnormalities are usually discernible beneath this secondary overlay. A small number of rather straightforward entities make up the bulk of cases of congenital heart disease seen in autopsy practice. In essence, these comprise abnormal communications between the systemic and pulmonary components of the circulation, or physical impediments to systemic or pulmonary blood flow. These common entities are described in some detail and illustrated in this chapter together with some rarer, but archetypal, lesions.


Ventricular septal defect Atrial septal defect Coarctation Pulmonary atresia Aortic stenosis Ebstein’s malformation Common arterial trunk Anomalous pulmonary venous connection Hypoplastic left heart 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of HistopathologyGreat Ormond Street Hospital for ChildrenLondonUK

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