Interpersonal and Intertextual Relations in the Lvov-Warsaw School

  • Anna BrożekEmail author
Part of the History of Analytic Philosophy book series (History of Analytic Philosophy)


In this chapter, it is assumed that two kinds of relations are essential to any philosophical school. Firstly, there are interpersonal relations between members of the school, including teacher–student relations. Secondly, there are intertextual relations between elements of output the school, namely between problems, conceptual schemes, methods or theories accepted by various representatives. The chapter consists of two parts. In the first part, the conceptual scheme for analysis of various types of interpersonal and intertextual relations is provided. It is claimed that contact between philosophers (oral or written, unilateral or bilateral) is a necessary but not sufficient element of influence of one philosopher on another. The influence takes place if the contact between philosophers results in some actions or convictions of one of them. The influence may be positive or negative. It is also the case that one may be more or less aware of being influenced by someone else. The second part of the chapter provides some examples of interpersonal and intertextual relations in the Lvov-Warsaw School. In particular, the contact between Kazimierz Twardowski, the founder of the school, and his direct students, is characterised. Further, some examples of Twardowski’s influence on the first generation of the LWS are given and the way that the influences were revealed is described. Also, the important characterological and theoretical differences between various Twardowski’s students are presented. In the conclusion a hypothesis is issued that the peculiarities of interpersonal and intertextual relations in the LWS are caused by Twardowski’s methodological attitude as well as his interdisciplinary approach to philosophical problems.


Contact between philosophers Interpersonal relations Intertextual relations Teacher–student relations Twardowski’s influence 


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© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Philosophy and SociologyUniversity of WarsawWarsawPoland

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