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Liver Diseases pp 397-406 | Cite as

History and Physical Examination

  • Ana-Maria Vintilă
  • Mihaela Horumbă
  • Vlad Damian Vintilă
Chapter

Abstract

Chronic liver disease is highly prevalent worldwide and an important cause of death in patients aged 25–65. Many conditions have been shown to eventually lead to liver failure thus rendering focused history taking and clinical examination particularly important. As patients with liver disease generally present with non-specific symptoms, a skilled physician must actively seek out risk factors and be able to recognize early signs of liver disease in order to reach a correct diagnosis and begin appropriate treatment.

Keywords

Chronic liver disease Cutaneous manifestations Cirrhosis Hepatitis Clinical examination Signs and symptoms Portal hypertension 

Abbreviations

BMI

Body mass index

HCC

Hepatocellular carcinoma

HCV

Hepatitis C virus

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

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  4. Macleod J. Macleod’s clinical examination. Philadelphia, PA Elsevier Health Sciences; 2009.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ana-Maria Vintilă
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mihaela Horumbă
    • 2
  • Vlad Damian Vintilă
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Carol Davila University of Medicine and PharmacyBucharestRomania
  2. 2.Department of Internal Medicine and CardiologyColțea Clinical HospitalBucharestRomania
  3. 3.Department of CardiologyEmergency University HospitalBucharestRomania

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