Advertisement

Domestication of the Donkey (Equus asinus) in the Southern Levant: Archaeozoology, Iconography and Economy

  • Ianir Milevski
  • Liora Kolska Horwitz
Chapter
Part of the The Palgrave Macmillan Animal Ethics Series book series (PMAES)

Abstract

This chapter discusses the timing of the first domestication of donkeys (Equus asinus) in the southern Levant (southern Syria-Israel Palestine-/Jordan) with reference to the region’s archaeozoological record. It further examines their subsequent utilization in local exchange systems based on iconographic records (miniature, artistic-cultic representations) found in archaeological sites. More specifically, this chapter reviews data concerning the role of these beasts of burden and the possible existence of a dedicated social stratum or group of persons specializing in their use in the Early Bronze Age (ca. 3700/3600–2400 BC). These data are bolstered by additional ancient Near Eastern sources and by ethnographic examples from the New World thought to possibly represent analogous situations.

Keywords

Equids Near East Domestication Beasts of burden Donkey burials Iconography Trade 

References

  1. Al-Ajlouny, Fardous, Khaled Douglas, Bilal Khrisat, and Abdulraouf Mayyas. 2012. “Laden Animal and Riding Figurines from Hirbet ez-Zeraqōn and their Implications of Trade in the Early Bronze Age.” Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins 128 (2): 99–120.Google Scholar
  2. Allentuck, Adam. 2013. Human-Livestock Relations in the Early Bronze Age Horwitzof the Southern Levamt. Unpublished PhD diss., University of Toronto, Toronto.Google Scholar
  3. Al-Zawahra, Muhamad A. M., and Ademar Ezzughayar. 1998. “Equid Remains from Bronze Age Periods of Site 4 of Tell Jenin.” In Archaeozoology of the Near East III. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on the Archaezoology of Southwestern Asia and Adjacent Areas, edited by Hijkle Buitenuis, Lazlo Bartosiewicz, and Alice M. Choyke, 130–134. Groningen: Centre for Archaeological Research and Consultancy.Google Scholar
  4. Alon, David. 1977. “A Chalcolithic Temple at Gilat.” Biblical Archaeologist 40: 63–65.Google Scholar
  5. Amiran, Ruth. 1972a. “A Cult Stele from Arad.” Israel Exploration Journal 22: 86–88.Google Scholar
  6. Amiran, Ruth. 1972b. “Reflections on the Identification of the Deity at the EB II and EB III Temples at Ai.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 208: 9–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Amiran, Ruth. 1985. “Canaanite Merchants in Tombs of the Early Bronze Age.” ‘Atiqot 17: 190–192.Google Scholar
  8. Anbar, Moshe.1998. “Deux ceremonies d’alliance dans Ex 24 à la lumière des Archives Royales de Mari.” Ugarit-Forschungen 30: 1–4.Google Scholar
  9. Angress, Shimon. 1959. “Mammal Remains from Horvat Beter (Beersheba).” ‘Atiqot 2: 53–71.Google Scholar
  10. Bar, Shay. 2014. The Dawn of the Bronze Age. Brill: Leiden.Google Scholar
  11. Bate, Dorothea M. A. 1938. “Animal Remains.” In Megiddo Tombs (Oriental Institute Publications 33), edited by P. L. O. Guy and Robert Engberg, 209–213. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  12. Bate, Dorothea M. A. 1958. “Animal Bones.” In Lachish IV: The Bronze Age, edited by Olga Tufnell, 322–323. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Becker, Cornelia. 1991. “The Analysis of Mammalian Bone from Basta, a Pre-Pottery Neolithic Site in Jordan, Problems and Potential.” Paléorient 17: 59–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Beja-Pereira, Albano, Phillip E. England, Nuno Ferrand, Steve Jordan, Amel O. Bakhiet, Mohammed A. Abdalla, Marjan Mashkour, Jordi Jordana, Pierre Taberlet, and Gordon Luikart. 2004. “African Origins of the Domestic Donkey.” Science 304: 1781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Benecke, Norbert. 2009. “Faunal Remains of Tall Hujayrat al-Ghuzlan (Excavations 2000–2004).” In Prehistoric Aqaba I, edited by Lufti Khalil and Klauss Schmidt, 339–354. (Orient Archälogie 23) Rahden: Marie Leidorf.Google Scholar
  16. Bennett, E. Andrew, Sophie Champlot, Joris Peters, Benjamin S. Arbuckle, Silvia Guimaraes, Mélanie Pruvost, Shirli Bar-David, Simon M. Davis, Mathieu Gautier, Petra Kaczensky, Ralph Kuehn, Marjan Mashkour, Arturo Morales-Muñiz, Erich Pucher, Jean F. Tournepiche, Hans P. Uerpmann, Adrian Bălăşescu, Mietje Germonpré, Can Y. Gündem, Mahmoud R. Hemami, Pierre E. Moullé, Aliye Ötzan, Margarette Uerpmann, Chris Walzer, Thierry Grange, and Eva M. Geigl. 2017. “Taming the Late Quaternary Phylogeography of the Eurasiatic Wild Ass through Ancient and Modern DNA.” PLoS ONE 12 (4): e0174216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Blench, Roger. 2012. “Wild Asses and Donkeys in Africa: Interdisciplinary Evidence for their Use, Biogeography, History and Current Use.” Updated Version of Paper Presented at SOAS 9th May 2012. Available online: https://www.soas.ac.uk/history/conferences/donkey-conference-2012/archive-of-previous-papers/file88185.pdf. Accessed January 28, 2017.
  18. Borowski, Oded. 2002. “Animals in the Religions of Syria-Palestine.” In A History of Animal World in the Ancient Near East, edited by Billie J. Collins, 405–424. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  19. Braun, Eliot. 1985. En Shadud: Salvage Excavations at a Farming Community in the Jezreel Valley, Israel (BAR International Series 249). Oxford: B.A.R.Google Scholar
  20. Braun, Eliot. 2013. Early Megiddo on the East Slope (The Megiddo “Stages”). A Report on the Early Occupation of East Slope of Megiddo. Results of the Oriental Institute’s Excavations, 1925–1933 (Oriental Institute Publications 139). Chicago: The Oriental Institute of the Chicago University.Google Scholar
  21. Callaway, Joseph. 1972. The Early Bronze Age Sanctuary at Ai (et-Tell). London: Quaritch.Google Scholar
  22. Chaker, Joane. 2016. “Mule Drivers in Nineteenth-Century Lebanon: From Local Social History Towards Global History.” Almanack 14: 27–51.Google Scholar
  23. Chapman, John C. 1982. “The Secondary Products Revolution and the Limitations of the Neolithic.” Bulletin of the Institute of Archaeology 19: 107–122.Google Scholar
  24. Clutton-Brock, Juliet. 1979. “The Mammalian Remains from the Jericho Tell.” Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 45: 135–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Clutton-Brock, Juliet. 1986. “Osteology of the Equids from Sumer.” In Equids in the Ancient World, edited by Richard H. Meadow and Hans-Peter Uerpmann, 207–229. Wiesbaden: Ludwig Reichert Verlag.Google Scholar
  26. Clutton-Brock, Juliet. 1989. “A Dog and a Donkey Excavated at Tell Brak.” Iraq 51: 217–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Clutton-Brock, Juliet. 1992. Horse Power: A History of the Horse and the Donkey in Human Societies. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Clutton-Brock, Juliet, and Sophie Davies. 1993. “More Donkeys from Tell Brak.” Iraq 55: 209–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Croft, Paul. 2004. “Árchaeozoological Studies. Section A: The Osteological Remains (Mamalian and Avian).” In The Renewed Excavations at Tel Lachish (1973–1994), Vol. V, edited by David Ussishkin, 2254–2348 (Institute of Archaeology, Monograph Series 22). Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University.Google Scholar
  30. Davis, Simon J. M. 1976. “Mammal Bones from the Early Bronze Age City of Arad, Northern Negev, Israel: Some Implications Concerning Human Exploitation.” Journal of Archaeological Science 3 (2): 153–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Davis, Simon J. M. 1978. “Étude de la faune.” In Abou Ghosh et Beisamoun. deux giséments du VIIe millenaire avant J.C, edited by M. Lechevallier, 195–197. Paris: Asociation Paléorient.Google Scholar
  32. Davis, Simon J. M. 1980. “Late Pleistocene and Holocene Equid Remains from Israel.” Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 70: 289–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Davis, Simon J. 1988. “The Mammal Bones: Tell Yarmuth 1980–1983.” In Yarmouth 1. Rapport sur les trois campagnes de fouilles à Tel Yarmouth (Israël), 1980–1982, edited by Pierre de Miroschedji, 143–149. Paris: Editions Recherche sur les Civilisations.Google Scholar
  34. Davis, Simon J. M. 2012. “Animal Bones at Nahal Zehora Sites.” In Village Communities of the Pottery Neolithic Period in the Menashe Hills, Israel. Archaeological Investigations at the Sites of Nahal Zehora, edited by Avi Gopher, 1258–1320 (Institute of Archaeology, Monograph Series 29). Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University.Google Scholar
  35. Davis, Simon, Omri Lernau, and Jöelle Pichon. 1994. “The Animal Remains: New Light in the Origin of Animal Husbandry.” In Le site de Hatoula en Judée Occidentale, Israel, edited by Monique Lechevallier and Avraham Ronen, 83–103. Paris: Association Paléorient.Google Scholar
  36. Dayan, Tamar, Eitan Tchernov, Ofer Bar-Yosef, Yoram Yom-Tov. 1986. “Animal Exploitation in Ujrat el-Mehed, a Neolithic Site in Southern Sinai.” Paléorient 12 (2): 105–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. de Miroschedji, Pierre, Moain Sadek, Dina Faltings, Virgine Boulez, Laurence Naggiar-Moliner, Naomi Sykes, and Margareta Tengberg. 2001. “Les fouilles de Tell es-Sakan (Gaza): Nouvelles données sur les contacts Égypto-cananéens aux IVe-IIIe millénaires.” Paléorient 27: 75–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dean, Rebecca M. 2014. “Hunting and Herding at Ayn Abu Nukhayla: The Vertebrae Faunal Assemblages.” In The Sands of Time: The Desert Neolithic Settlement at Ayn Abu Nukhayla, edited by Donald O. Henry and Joseph E. Beaver, 76–100. Berlin: ex oriente.Google Scholar
  39. Ducos, Pierre. 1968. L’Origine des Animaux Domestiques en Palestine. (Publications de l’Institut de Préhistoire de l’Université de Bordeaux, Mémoire 6). Bordeaux: Delmas.Google Scholar
  40. Ducos, Pierre. 1975. “A New Find of an Equid Metatarsal Bone from Tell Mureibet in Syria and Its Relevance to the Identification of Equids from the Early Holocene of the Levant.” Journal of Archaeological Science 2: 71–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ducos, Pierre, and Liora Kolska Horwitz. 2003. “The Pre-Pottery Neolithic B fauna from the Lechevalier excavations at Abu Gosh. ” In The Neolithic Site of Abu Gosh: The 1995 Excavations, edited by Hamoudi Khalaily and Ofer Marder, 103–119 (IAA Reports 19). Jerusalem: Israel Antiquities Authority.Google Scholar
  42. Eisenmann, Véra. 1986. “Comparative Osteology of Modern and Fossil Horses, Half-asses, and Asses.” In Equids in the Ancient World, edited by Richard H. Meadow and Hans P. Uerpmann, 68–116. Wiesbaden: Ludwig Reichert Verlag.Google Scholar
  43. Eisenmann, Véra. 2012a. “Shiqmim, deuxième phalange postérieure (posterior Ph2).” http://www.vera-eisenmann.com/shiqmim-deuxieme-phalange-posterieure-posterior-ph2. Published July 18, 2012. Accessed January 31, 2017.
  44. Eisenmann, Véra. 2012b. “Data on Equids from Munhatta, Hagoshrim, Tel Gat, Tel Turmus, Lod, Arad.” http://www.vera-eisenmann.com/-Moyen-Orient-Middle-East. Published July 18, 2012. Accessed January 31, 2017.
  45. Eisenmann, Véra, and Sophie Beckouche. 1986. “Identification and Discrimination of Metapodials from Pleistocene and Modern Equus, Wild and Domestic.” In Equids in the Ancient World Vol. I, edited by Richard H. Meadow and Hans P. Uerpmann, 117–163 (Beihefte zum Tübinger Atlas desVorderen Orients, Reihe A, Nr 19/1). Ludwig Reichert Verlag, Wiesbaden.Google Scholar
  46. Engberg, Robert, and Geoffrey Shipton. 1934. Notes on Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Pottery of Megiddo (Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization 10). Chicago: Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Epstein, Hellmut. 1971. The Origin of the Domestic Animals of Africa. New York, NY: African Publishing Corporation.Google Scholar
  48. Epstein, Claire. 1985. “Laden Animal Figurines from the Chalcolithic Period in Palestine.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 258: 53–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Evershed, Richard P., Sebastian Payne, Andrew G. Sherratt, Mark S. Copley, Jennifer Coolidge, Duska Urem-Kotsu, Ozdögan Kotsakis, Ozdögan Kostas, Asl‎‎y Mehmet, Olivier Nieuwenhuysen, Peter M. M. Akkermans, Dogulass Bailey, Radian R. Andeescu, Campbell Stuart, Shahina Farid, Ian Hodder, Nurcan Yalman, Mihriban Ozbasaran, Erhan Bycaky, Yosef Garfinkel, Thomas Levy, and Margie M. Burton. 2008. “Earliest Date for Milk Use in the Near East and Southeastern Europe Linked to Cattle Herding.” Nature 455: 528–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Fall, Patricia L., Steven E. Falconer, and Lee Lines. 2002. “Agricultural Intensification and the Secondary Products Revolution along the Jordan Rift.” Human Ecology 30 (4): 445–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Flannery, Kent V., Joyce Marcus, and Robert G. Reynolds. 1989. The Flocks of the Wamani: A Study of the Llama Herders on the Punas of Ayacucho, Peru. San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  52. Flores Ochoa, J. A. 1997. “La Missa Andina.” In Arqueología, Antropología e Historia. Homenaje a María Rosa Rosworowski, edited by Rafael Varón Gabai and Javier Flores Espinoza, 717–728. Lima: Instituto de Estudios Peruanos.Google Scholar
  53. Foster, Benjamin R. 2002. “Animals in Mesopotamian Literature.” In A History of Animal World in the Ancient Near East, edited by Billie J. Collins, 271–306. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  54. Gardiner, Alan H., and Eric T. Peet. 1952. The Inscriptions of Sinai: Part II: Translations and Commentary. London: Egypt Exploration Society.Google Scholar
  55. Gilbert Alan S., Jerold M. Lowenstein, Brian C. Hesse. 1990. “Biochemical Differentiation of Archaeological Equid Remains: Lessons from a First Attempt.” Journal of Field Archaeology 17 (1): 39–48.Google Scholar
  56. Goe, Michael R. 1983. “Current Status of Research on Animal Traction.” World Animal Review 45: 2–17.Google Scholar
  57. Greenberg, Raphael. 1996. “The Early Bronze Age Levels.” In Dan I: A Chronicle of the Excavations, the Pottery Neolithic, the Early Bronze Age and the Middle Bronze Age Tombs, edited by Abraham Biran, David Ilan, and Raphael Greenberg, 83–160. Jerusalem: Hebrew Union College.Google Scholar
  58. Greenberg, Raphael, and Naomi Porat. 1996. “A Third Millennium Levantine Pottery Production Center: Typology, Petrography and Provenance of the Metallic Ware of Northern Israel and Adjacent Regions.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 301: 5–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Greenberg, Raphael, Liora Kolska Horwitz, Omri Lernau, Henk K. Mienis, Hamoudi Khalaily, and Ofer Marder. 1998. “A Sounding at Tel Na’ama in the Hula Valley.” ‘Atiqot 35: 9–35.Google Scholar
  60. Greenfield, Haskel. 2010. “The Secondary Products Revolution: The Past, the Present and the Future.” World Archaeology 42: 29–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Greenfield, Haskel J., Itzhak Shai, and Aren Maeir. 2012. “Being an ‘Ass’: An Early Bronze Age burial of a Donkey from Tell es-Safi/Gath, Israel.” Bioarchaeology of the Near East 6: 21–52.Google Scholar
  62. Greenfield, Haskel J., Itzhak Shai, Shira Albaz, and Aren Maeir. 2015. “The Importance of the Donkey as a Pack Animal in the Early Bronze Age Southern Levant: A View from Tell es-Safi/Gath.” Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins 132: 1–25.Google Scholar
  63. Grigson, Caroline. 1987. “Shiqmim: Pastoralism and other Aspects of Animal Management in the Chalcolithic of the Northern Negev.” In Shiqmim I, edited by Thomas E. Levy, 219–241 and 535–546 (BAR International Series 356). Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
  64. Grigson, Caroline. 1993. “The Earliest Domestic Horses in the Levant?—New Finds from the Fourth Millennium of the Negev.” Journal of Archaeological Science 20: 645–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Grigson, Caroline. 1995. “Plough and Pasture in the Early Economy of the Southern Levant.” In The Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land, edited by Thomas E. Levy, 245–268. London: Leicester University Press.Google Scholar
  66. Grigson, Caroline. 2006. “Farming? Feasting? Herding? Large mammals from the Chalcolithic of Gilat.” In Archaeology and Cult: The Sanctuary at Gilat, Israel, edited by Thomas E. Levy, 215–319. London: Equinox.Google Scholar
  67. Grigson, Caroline. 2012. “Size Matters—Donkeys and Horses in the Prehistory of the Southernmost Levant.” Paléorient 38 (1): 185–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hellwing, Salo S. 1988–1989. “Animal Bones from Tel Tsaf.” Tel Aviv 15–16: 47–51.Google Scholar
  69. Hellwing, Salo S. 2000. “Faunal Remains.” In Aphek-Antipatris I. Excavations of Areas A and B: the 1972–1976 Seasons, edited by Moshe Kochavi, Pirhya Beck and Esther Yadin, 293–314 (Institute of Archaeology Monograph Series No. 19). Tel-Aviv University: Tel Aviv.Google Scholar
  70. Heltzer, Michael. 1978. Goods, Prices and the Organization of Trade in Ugarit: Marketing and Transportation in the Eastern Mediterranean in the Second half of the II Millennium BCE. Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz.Google Scholar
  71. Henry, Donald O., Priscilla F. Turnbull, Aline Emery-Barbier, and Arlette Leroi-Gourhan. 1985. “Archaeological and Faunal Evidence from Natufian and Timnian Sites in Southern Jordan, with Notes on Pollen Evidence.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 257: 45–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hesse, Brian, and Paula Wapnish. 2002. “An Archaeozoological Perspective on the Cultural of Use of Mammals.” In A History of Animal World in the Ancient Near East, edited by Billie Jean 457–492 (Collins Handbook of Oriental Studies: Section 1). Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  73. Hester, Thomas R., and Robert F. Heizer. 1981. Making Stone Vases: Ethoarchaeological Studies at an Alabaster Workshop in Upper Egypt (Monographic Journals of the Near East, Occasional Papers1/2). Malibu, CA: Undena Publications.Google Scholar
  74. Horwitz, Liora Kolska. 1985. “Appendix C. The En Shadud Faunal Remains.” In En Shadud: Salvage Excavations at a Farming Community in the Jezreel Valley, Israel, edited by Eliot Braun, 168–177 (BAR International Series 249). Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
  75. Horwitz, Liora Kolska. 1987. “Animal Remains from the Pottery Neolithic Levels at Tel Dan.” Journal of the Israel Prehistoric Society 20: 114–118.Google Scholar
  76. Horwitz, Liora Kolska. 1996. “Faunal Remains.” In The Nahal Qanah Cave: Earliest Gold in the Southern Levant, edited by Avi Gopher Tvika Tsuk, 181–199 (Institute of Archaeology Monograph Series No. 12). Tel Aviv: Tel-Aviv University.Google Scholar
  77. Horwitz, Liora Kolska. 1997. “Animal Remains.” In Yiftah’el: Salvage and Rescue Excavations at a Prehistoric Village in Lower Galilee, Israel, edited by Eliot Braun, 155–172 (IAA Reports 2). Jerusalem: Israel Antiquities Authority.Google Scholar
  78. Horwitz, Liora Kolska. 2001. “The Mammalian Fauna.” In Tel Te’o: A Neolithic, Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age Site in the Hula Valley, edited by Emmanuel Eisenberg, Avi Gopher and Raphael Greenberg, 171–194 (IAA Reports 13). Jerusalem: Israel Antiquities Authority.Google Scholar
  79. Horwitz, Liora Kolska. 2003a. “Early Bronze Age Animal Exploitation at Qiryat Ata.” In Salvage Excavations at the Early Bronze Age Site of Qiryat Ata, edited by Amir Golani, 225–227 (IAA Reports 18). Jerusalem: Israel Antiquities Authority.Google Scholar
  80. Horwitz, Liora Kolska. 2003b. “Fauna from Tel Qashish.” In Tel Qashish, a Village in the Jezreel Valley. Final Report of the Archaeological Excavatiions (1978–1987), edited by Amnon Ben-Tor, Ruhama Bonfil, and Sharon Zuckerman, 427–436 (Qedem Reports 5). Jerusalem: The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.Google Scholar
  81. Horwitz, Liora Kolska. 2007. “Faunal Remains from Late Chalcolithic–Early Bronze Age Dwelling and Burial Caves at Shoham (North), Lod Valley.” ‘Atiqot 55: 1–15.Google Scholar
  82. Horwitz, Liora Kolska, and Eitan Tchernov. 1989. “Animal Exploitation in the Early Bronze Age of the Southern Levant.” In L’urbanisation de la Palestine à l’âge du Bronze ancien. Bilan et perspectives des recherches actuelles, edited by Pierre de Miroschedji, 279–296 (BAR International Series 527 [ii]). Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
  83. Horwitz, Liora Kolska, Salo Hellwing, and Eitan Tchernov. 1996. “Patterns of Animal Exploitation at Early Bronze Age Tel Dalit.” In Excavations at Tel Dalit, edited by Ram Gophna, 193–216. Tel Aviv: Ramot.Google Scholar
  84. Horwitz, Liora Kolska, Eitan Tchernov, and Henk K. Mienis. 2001. “Archaeozoology and Archaemalacology of Site 917 in the ‘Uvda Valley’.” ‘Atiqot 42: 121–127.Google Scholar
  85. Horwitz, Liora Kolska, Eitan Tchernov, Henk K. Mienis, Dalia Hakker-Orion, and Daniella Bar-Yosef Mayer. 2002. “The Archeozoology of Three Early Bronze Age Sites in Nahal Besor, North-Western Negev.” In Quest of Ancient Settlements and Landscapes: Archaeological Studies in Honour of Ram Gophna, edited by Edwin C. M. van den Brink and Eli Yannai, 107–133. Tel Aviv: Ramot.Google Scholar
  86. Horwitz, Liora Kolska, Steve A. Rosen, and Fanny Bocquentin. 2011. “A Late Neolithic Burial Offering from the Mortuary-Cult Site of Ramat Saharonim in the Central Negev.” Journal of Israel Prehistoric Society 41: 71–81.Google Scholar
  87. Horwitz, Liora Kolska, Daniel M. Master, and Hadas Motro. 2017. “A Middle Bronze Age Equid from Ashkelon: A Case of Ritual Interment or Refuse Disposal?” In The Wide Lens in Archaeology: Honoring Brian Hesse’s Contributions to Anthropological Archaeology, edited by Justin Lev-Tov, Paula Wapnish, and Allan Gilbert, 271–296. London: Lockwood Press.Google Scholar
  88. Ibrahim, Moawiyah, and Siegfried Mittman. 1987. “Tell el–Mughayyir and Khirbet ez-Zeiraqoun.” Newsletter of the Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology Yarmouk University 4: 3–6.Google Scholar
  89. Jans, Greta, and Joachim Bretschneider. 1998. “Wagon and Chariot Representations in the Early Dynastic Glyptic: ‘They Came to Tell Beydar with Wagon and Equid’.” In About Subartu: Studies Devoted to Upper Mesopotamia: II. Culture, Society, Image, edited by Marc Lebeau, 155–194. Turnhout: Brepols.Google Scholar
  90. Jarman, Michael R. 1974. “The Fauna and Economy of Tel ‘Ali.” Journal of the Israel Prehistoric Society 12: 50–70.Google Scholar
  91. Jiménez, Juan Ramón. 1914. Platero y Yo. Madrid: Ediciones de la Lectura.Google Scholar
  92. Joannès, Francis. 1996. “Routes et voies de communication dans les archives de Mari.” In Amurru I. Mari, Ebla et les Hourrites. Dix ans de travaux. Première partie, edited by Jean-Marie Durand, 323–361. Paris: Editions Recherche sur les Civilisations.Google Scholar
  93. Jónsson, Hákon, Mikkel Schubert, Andaine Seguin-Orlando, Aurélien Ginolhac, L. Fumagalli Matteo Petersen, Anders Albrechtsen, Brent Petersen, Thorfinn S. Korneliussen, Julia T. Vilstrup, Teri Lear, Jennifer L. Myka, Judith Lundquist, Donald C. Miller, Ahmed H. Alfarhan, Saleh A. Alquraishi, Khaled A. S. Al-Rasheid, Julia Stagegaard, Günter Strauss, Mads F. Bertelsen, Thomas Sicheritz-Ponten, Douglas F. Antczak, Ernest Bailey, Rasmus Nielsen, Eske Willerslev, Ludovico Orlando. 2014. “Speciation with Gene Flow in Equids despite Extensive Chromosomal Plasticity.” Proceedings of the National Academic of Sciences 111 (52): 18655–18660.Google Scholar
  94. Josien, Thérèse. 1955. “La faune Chalcolithique des gisements Palestiniens de Bir es-Safadi et Bir Abu Matar.Israel Exploration Journal 5: 246–256.Google Scholar
  95. Kadowaki, Seiji, Kevin Gibbs, Adam Allentuck, Edward B. Banning. 2008. “Late Neolithic Settlement in Wadi Ziqlab, Jordan: al-Basatîn.” Paléorient 34 (1): 105–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Kansa, Eric, Sara Witcher, and Thomas E. Levy. 2005. “Eat Like and ‘Egyptian’?—A Contextual Approach to an Early Bronze I ‘Egyptian Colony’ in the Southern Levant.” In Integrating Zooarchaeology: Proceedings of the 9th ICAZ Conference, Durham 2007, edited by Mark Maltby, 76–91. Oxford: Oxbow books.Google Scholar
  97. Kefena, Effa, Yoseph Mekasha, Jianlin L. Han, Sónia Rosenbom, Aynallem Haile, Tadelle Dessie, and Albano Beja-Pereira. 2012. “Discordances Between Morphological Systematics and Molecular Taxonomy in the Stem Line of Equids: A Review of the Case of Taxonomy of Genus Equus.” Livestock Science 143 (2): 105–115.‏CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Kimura, Birgitta, Fiona Marshall, Shanyuan Chen, Sónia Rosenbom, Patricia D. Moehlman, Noreen Tuross, Richard C. Sabin, Joris Peters, Barbara Barich, Hagos Yohannes, Fanuel Kebede, Redae Teclai, Albano Beja-Pereira, and Connie J. Mulligan. 2011. “Ancient DNA from Nubian and Somali Wild Ass Provides Insights into Donkey Ancestry and Domestication.” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 278: 50–57.Google Scholar
  99. Kimura, Birgitta, Fiona Marshall, Albano Beja-Pereira, and Connie J. Mulligan. 2013. “Donkey Domestication.” African Archaeological Review 30 (1): 83–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Köhler-Rollefson, Ilse, Leslie Quintero, and Gary O. Rollefson. 1993. “A Brief Note on the Fauna from Neolithic ‘Ain Ghazal.” Paleorient 19 (2): 95–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Kramer, Samuel Noah. 1961. Sumerian Mythology: A Study of Spiritual and Literary. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  102. Kugler, Waltraud, Hans P. Grunenfelder, and Elli Broxham. 2008. Donkey Breeds in Europe: Inventory, Description, Need for Action, Conservation; Report 2007/2008. St. Gallen, Switzerland: Monitoring Institute for Rare Breeds and Seeds in Europe.Google Scholar
  103. Larsen, Mogens T. 1967. Old Assyrian Caravan Procedures. Istanbul: Institut Historique-Archeologique Neerlandais de Stamboul.Google Scholar
  104. Legge, A. J. 1988. “Floral and Faunal Remains.” In Gezer V. The Field I Caves, edited by Joe D. Seger, 39–40. Jerusalem: Hebrew Union College.Google Scholar
  105. Lernau, Hanan. 1978. “Faunal Remains, Strata III–I.” In Early Arad: The Chalcolithic Settlement and the Early Bronze City, edited by Ruth Amiran, et al., 83–113. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society.Google Scholar
  106. Levy, Thomas E., David Alon, Yorke Rowan, Edwin C. M. van den Brink, Caroline Grigson, Augustine Holl, Patricia Smith, Paul Goldberg, Alan J. Witten, Eric Kansa, John Moreno, Yuval Yekutieli, Naomi Porat, Jonathan Golden, Leslie Dawson and Morag Kersel Morag. 1997. “Egyptian-Canaanite Interaction at Nahal Tillah, Israel (ca. 4500–3000 BCE): An Interim Report on the 1994–1995 Excavations.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 307: 1–51.Google Scholar
  107. Makarewicz, Cheryl. 2005. “Pastoral Production in a Corporate System: The Early Bronze Age at Khirbet el-Minsahlat, Jordan.” In Archaeozoology of the Ancient Near East VI, edited by Hijkle Buitenius, Alice Choyke, Lazlo Bartosiewicz, and Marjarn Mashkour, 163–177. Groningen: ARC Publications.Google Scholar
  108. Makarewicz, Cheryl. 2009. “Complex Caprine Harvesting Practices and Diversified Hunting Strategies: Integrated Animal Exploitation Systems at Late Pre-Pottery Neolithic Ba’in Jamman.” Anthropozoologica 44 (1): 79–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Makarewicz, Cheryl. 2016. “Caprine Husbandry and Initial Pig Management East of the Jordan Valley: Animal Exploitation at Neolithic Wadi Shu’eib, Jordan.” Paléorient 42 (1): 151–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Marshall, Fiona. 2000. “The Origins and Spread of Domestic Animals in East Africa.” In The Origins and Development of African Livestock: Archaeology, Genetics, Linguistics and Ethnography, edited by Roger Blench Roger and Kevin C. MacDonald, 191–221. London: University College London Press-Taylor & Francis Group.‏Google Scholar
  111. Marshall, Fiona. 2007. “African Pastoral Perspectives on Domestication of the Donkey: A First Synthesis.” In Rethinking Agriculture: Archaeological and Ethnological Perspectives, edited by Tom Denham, José Iriarte, and Luc Vrydaghs, 371–407. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  112. Martin, Louise. 1994. “Hunting and Herding in a Semiarid Region. Faunal Remains from the Epipalaeolithic and Neolithic of the Eastern Jordanian Steppe.” Unpublished PhD diss., University of Sheffield.Google Scholar
  113. McArdle, John. 1992. “Preliminary Observations on the Mammalian Fauna from Predynastic Localities at Hierakonpolis.” In The Followers of Horus: Studies Dedicated to Michael Allen Hoffman 1944–1990, edited by Renée Friedman and Barbara Adams, 3–56 (Egyptian Studies Assoc. Publication No. 2, Oxbow Monograph 20). Oxford: Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
  114. Meadow, Richard H. 1989. “Osteological evidence for the process of animal domestication.” In The Walking Larder: Patterns of Domestication, Pastoralism, and Predation, edited by Juliet Clutton-Brock, pp. 80–90. London: Unwin Hyman.Google Scholar
  115. Mendelsohn, Isaac. 1940. “Guilds in Ancient Palestine.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 80: 17–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Meyerhof, Ezra, and Moshe Sade. 1993. “Faunal Remains from Bet Ha-Emeq.” In The Excavation at Bet Ha-Emeq 1973, edited by Shemuel Givon, 68–81. Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  117. Milevski, Ianir. 2005. Local Exchange in Early Bronze Age Canaan. PhD diss. Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University.Google Scholar
  118. Milevski, Ianir. 2008. “Visual Expressions of Craft Production in the Chalcolithic of the Southern Levant.” In Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East Vol. 3, edited by Paolo Matthiae, et al., 423–429. Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz.Google Scholar
  119. Milevski, Ianir. 2009. “The Copper Age and Inequality in the Southern Levant: A Review Article.” Journal of the Israel Prehistoric Society 39: 159–180.Google Scholar
  120. Milevski, Ianir. 2011. Early Bronze Goods Exchange in the Southern Levant: A Marxist Perspective. London: Equinox.Google Scholar
  121. Milevski, Ianir, and Nimrod Getzov. 2014. “En Zippori. Preliminary Report.” Hadashot Arkheologyiot—Excavations and Suyrveys in Israel 126. www.hashot-esi.org.il/report_detail_eng.aspx?id=13675&mag_id=121.
  122. Motro, Hadas. 2014. Medieval Equids in the Southern Levant: Methods for Characterizing Species and Breed. Unpublished PhD diss., The Hebrew University, Jerusalem.Google Scholar
  123. Nielsen, Axel E. 1997–1998. “Tráfico de caravanas en el sur de Bolivia: Observaciones etnográficas e implicancias arqueológicas.” Relaciones de la Sociedad Argentina de Antropología 22–23: 139–178.Google Scholar
  124. Nigro, Lorenzo. 2014. “The Copper Route and the Egyptian Connection in 3rd Millennium BC Jordan Seen from the Caravan City of Khirbet al-Batrawy.” Vicino Oriente 18: 39–64.Google Scholar
  125. Oates, David, and Joan A. Oates. 1991. “Human-Headed Bull Statue from Tell Brak.” Cambridge Archaeological Journal 1: 131–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Oates, David, and Joan A. Oates. 1993. “Excavations at Tell Brak 1992–1993.” Iraq 55: 155–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Oates, David, Joan A. Oates, and Helen McDonald. 2001. Excavations at Tell Brak 2: Nagar in the Third Millennium BC. Cambridge: McDonald Institute of Archaeology.Google Scholar
  128. Outram, Alan K., Natalie A. Stear, Robin Bendrey, Sandra Olsen, Alexei Kasparov, Victor Zaibert, Nick Thorpe, and Richard P. Evershed. 2009. “The Earliest Horse Harnessing and Milking.” Science 323: 1332–1335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Partridge, Richard. 1996. Transport in Ancient Egypt. London: Stacey International.Google Scholar
  130. Payne, Sebastian. 1988. “Animal Bones from Tell Rubeidheh.” In Tell Rubeidheh: An Uruk Village in the Jebel Hamrin, edited by Robert G. Killick and T. Cuyler Young, 98–145. Baghdad.Google Scholar
  131. Pearson, R. Ann, Edward Nengomasha, and Rosina Krecek. 1999. “The Challenges in Using Donkeys for Work in Africa.” In Meeting the Challenges of Animal Traction: A Resource Book of The Animal Traction Network for Eastern and Southern Africa (ATNESA), edited by Paul Starkey and Pascal Kaumbuth, 190–198. Harare, Zimbabwe: Intermediate Technology Publications.Google Scholar
  132. Pérez‐Pardal, Lucia, Juraj Grizelj, Amadou Traore, Vlatka Cubric‐Curik, Georgios Arsenos, Toni Dovenski, Božidark Markovi, Ivan Fernandez, Miguel Cuervo, Ivan Alvarez, Albano Beja-Pereira, Ino Curik, and Felix Goyache. 2014. “Lack of Mitochondrial DNA Structure in Balkan Donkey Is Consistent with a Quick Spread of the Species After Domestication.” Animal Genetics 45 (1): 144–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Petrie, William M. F. 1914. Tarkhan II. London: British School of Archaeology in Egypt.Google Scholar
  134. Podberscek, Anthony L. 2009. “Good to Pet and Eat: The Keeping and Consuming of Dogs and Cats in South Korea.” Journal of Social Issues 65 (3): 615–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Postgate, J. Nicholas. 1986. “The Equids of Sumer, Again.” In Equids in the Ancient World (Beihefte zum TübingerAtlas desVorderen Orients, ReiheA, Nr 19/1), edited by Richard Meadow and Hans P. Uerpmann, 194–206. Wiesbaden: Ludwig Reichert Verlag.Google Scholar
  136. Potts, Daniel T. 2011. “Equus asinus in Highland Iran: Evidence Old and New.” In Between Sand and Sea: The Archaeology and Human Ecology of Southwestern Asia: Festschrift in Honor of Hans-Peter Uerpmann, edited by Nicholas J. Conard, Philipp Drechsler, and Arturo Morales, 167–175. Tübingen.Google Scholar
  137. Rathje, William L. 1972. “Praise the Gods and Pass the Metates: A Hypothesis of the Development of Lowland Rainforest Civilizations in Mesoamerica.” In Contemporary Archaeology: A Guide to Theory and Contributions, edited by Mark P. Leone, 365–392. Carbondale: Southern Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  138. Reinhard, Johan, and Constanza Ceruti. 2000. Investigaciones Arqueológicas en el Volcán Llullaillaco. Salta: EUCASAL.Google Scholar
  139. Rizkana, Ibrahim, and Jürgen Seeher. 1987. Maadi: Excavations at the Predynastic Site of Maadi and its Cemeteries Conducted by the Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts of Cairo University, 1930–1953. I: The Pottery of Predynastic Settlement. Mainz am Rhein: Philip von Zabern.Google Scholar
  140. Rosenbom, Sónia, Vânia Costa, Shanyuan Chen, Leili Khalatbari, Gholam Hosein Yusefi, Ablimit Abdukadir, Chamba Yangzom, Fanuel Kebede, Redae Teclai, Hagos Yohannes, Futsum Hagos, Patricia D. Moehlman, and Albano Beja-Pereira. 2015. “Reassessing the Evolutionary History of Ass-Like Equids: Insights from Patterns of Genetic Variation in Contemporary Extant Populations.” Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 85: 88–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Rossel, Stine, Fiona Marshall, Joris Peters, Tom Pilgram, Matthew D. Adams, and David O’Connor. 2008. “Domestication of the Donkey: Timing, Processes, and Indicators.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105 (10): 3715–3720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Sade, Moshe. 2000. “Animal Bones from Qiryat Ata, Area L.” Tel Aviv 27: 57–60.Google Scholar
  143. Sade, Moshe. 2008. “The Archaeozoological Material.” In The Early Bronze Age Site of Asqelon, Afridar—Area M, by Amir Golani, 40–45. ‘Atiqot 60: 19–51.Google Scholar
  144. Sade, Moshe. 2016. “Faunal Remains.” In Lod (Newe Yaraq). A Late Roman Pottery Kiln and Pottery Neolithic A (Jericho IX/Lodian) Remains, by Edwin C. M. van den Brink and Catherine Commenge, 31–32. ‘Atiqot 86: 1–36.Google Scholar
  145. Sapir-Hen, Lidar, Yuval Gadot, and Oded Lipschits. 2017. “Ceremonial Donkey Burials, Social Status and Settlement Hierarchy in the Early Bronze III: The Case of Azekah.” In The Wide Lens in Archaeology: Honoring Brian Hesse’s Contribution to Anthropological Archaeology, edited by Justin Lev-Tov, Paula Hesse, and Allan Gilbert, 259–270. Atlanta, GA: Lockwood Press.Google Scholar
  146. Sayej, Ghattas J. 1997. Tell Jenin: A Pre-Ceramic Site; North-West Bank Palestine. MA diss., Institute of Archaeology University of Bergen, Bergen.Google Scholar
  147. Scurlock, John. 2002. “Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Mesopotamian Religion.” In History of the Animal World in the Ancient Near East, edited by Billie J. Collins, 389–404. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  148. Seger, Joe D., Brent Baum, Oded Borowski, Dan P. Cole, Harold Forshey, Eugene Futato, Paul F. Jacobs, Mark Laustrup, Patti O’Connor Seger, and Melinda Zeder. 1990. “The Bronze Age Settlements at Tell Halif. Phase II Excavations, 1983–1987. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research Supplement 26: 1–32.Google Scholar
  149. Serjeantson, Dale. 2000. “Good to Eat and Good to Think With: Classifying Animals from Complex Sites.” In Animal Bones, Human Societies, edited by Peter A. Rowley-Conwy, 179–189. Oxford: Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
  150. Shackelford, Laura, Fiona Marshall and Joris Peters. 2013. “ Identifying donkey domestication through changes in cross-sectional geometry of long bones.” Journal of Archaeological Science 40: 4170–4179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Shavit, Yehuda and Jehuda Reinharz. 2014. The Donkey: A Cultural History. Tel Aviv: Zalman Shazar Center (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  152. Sherratt, Andrew G. 1980. “Plough and Pastoralism: Aspects of the Secondary Products Revolution.” In Pattern of the Past. Studies in Honour of David Clarke, edited by Ian Hodder, Glynn Isaac and Norman Hammond, 261–306. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  153. Sherratt, Andrew G. 1983. “The Secondary Products Revolution of Animals in the Old World.” World Archaeology 15: 90–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Starkey, Paul. 2000. “The History of Working Animals in Africa.” In The Origins and Development of African Livestock: Archaeology, Genetics, Linguistics and Ethnography, edited by Roger M. Blench and Kevin C. McDonald, 478–502. London: University College London Press-Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
  155. Staubli, Thomas. 1991. Das Image der Nomaden im Alten Israel und in der Ikonographie Seiner Sesshaften Nachbarn. (Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis 107). Fribourg: Fribourg University.Google Scholar
  156. Stevenson, Robert Louis. 1879 [2016]. Travels with a Donkey in the Cévennes. Oxford: John Beaufoy Publishing Ltd.Google Scholar
  157. Stordeur, Danielle, Miquel Molist. 2010. “Le PPNB de Syrie du Sud à travers les découvertes récentes à Tell Aswad.” In Hauran V La Syrie du sud du Néolithique à l’antiquité tardive. Recherches récentes. Vol. 1, edited by Michel Al-Maqdissi, Frank Braemer and Jean-Marie Dentzer, 41–67. Beyrut: Institut français du Proche-Orient.Google Scholar
  158. Tchernov, Eitan and Ofer Bar-Yosef. 1982. “Animal Exploitation in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic Period at Wadi Tbeik, Southern Sinai.” Paléorient 8 (2): 17–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Twiss, Katheryn C. 2007. “The Zooarchaeology of Tel Tif’dan (Wadi Fidan 001), Southern Jordan.” Paléorient 33 (2): 127–145. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Uerpmann, Hans P. 1986. “Halafian Equid Remains from Shams ed-Din Tannira in Northern Syria.” In Equids in the Ancient World, edited by Richard H. Meadow and Hans-Peter Uerpmann, 246–265 (Beihefte zum Tübinger Atlas desVorderen Orients, ReiheA, Nr 19/1). Wiesbaden: Ludwig Reichert Verlag.Google Scholar
  161. Uerpmann, Hans P. 1991. “Equus africanus in Arabia.” In Equids in the Ancient World, II, edited by Richard H. Meadow and Hans-Peter Uerpmann, 12–33 (Beihefte zum Tübinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients, Reihe A, Nr 19/1). Wiesbaden: Ludwig Reichert Verlag.Google Scholar
  162. Uerpmann, Hans-Peter and Margarette Uerpmann. 2012a. “Animal Labour and Beasts of Burden in South-East Arabian Pre- and Protohistory.” In Fifty Years of Emirates Archaeology. edited by Daniel T. and Peter Hellyer, 80–85. Abu Dhabi: Motivate Publishing.Google Scholar
  163. Uerpmann, Margarette and Hans-Peter Uerpmann.2012b. “Archeozoology of Camels in South Eastern Arabia.” In Camels in Asia and North Africa. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on their Significance in Past and Present, edited by Eva M. Knoll and Pamela Burger, 109–122 Vienna: Austrian Academy of Science Press.Google Scholar
  164. Ussishkin, David. 1980. “The Ghassulian Shrine at ‘En–Gedi.” Tel Aviv 7: 1–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Vila, Emanuelle. 2006. “Data on Equids from Late Fourth Millennium and Third Millennium Sites in Northern Syria.” In Equids in Time and Space, Papers in Honor of Vera Eisenmann, edited by Marjan Mashkour, 101–123. Oxford: Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
  166. Vilà, Carles, Jennifer A. Leonard, and Albano Beja-Pereira. 2006. “Genetic Documentation of Horse and Donkey Domestication.” In Documenting Domestication, edited by Melinda A. Zeder, Daniel G. Bradley, Eve Emshwiller and Bruce D. Smith, 342–353. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  167. von den Driesch, Angela, Isabel Caratejena, and Henriette Manhart. 2004. “The Late PPNB Site of Ba’ja, Jordan: The Faunal Remains (1997 season).” In Central Settlements in Neolithic Jordan: Proceedings of a Symposium held in Wadi Musa, Jordan, 21st–25th July, 1997, edited by Hans D. Bienert, Hans G. K. Gebel and Reinder Neef, 271–288 (Studies in Early Near Eastern Production, Subsistence, and Environment 5). Berlin: ex oriente.Google Scholar
  168. Wapnish, Paula, and Brian Hesse. 1991. “Faunal remains from Tel Dan: Perspectives on Animal Production at a Village, Urban and Ritual Center.” Archeozoologia 4: 9–86.Google Scholar
  169. Wapnish, Paula, and Brian Hesse. 2000. “Mammal Remains from the Early Bronze Sacred Compound.” In Megiddo III. The 1992–1996 Seasons. Vol. II, edited by Israel Finkelstein, David Ussishkin and Baruch Halpern, 429–462 (Institute of Archaeology, Monograph Series 18). Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University.Google Scholar
  170. Way, Kenneth C. 2011. Donkeys in the Biblical World: Ceremony and Symbol. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns.Google Scholar
  171. Weber, Jill Ann. 2008. “Elite Equids: Redefining Equid Burials of the Mid- to Late 3rd Millennium BC from Umm el-Marra, Syria.” In Archaeozoology of the Near East VIII. Actes des huitièmes Rencontres internationales d’Archéozoologie de l’Asie du Sud-Ouest et des régions adjacentes, edited by Emmanuelle Vila, Lionel Gourichon, Alice M. Choyke and Hijlke Buitenhuis, 499–519. Lyon: Maison de l’Orient et de la Méditerranée Jean Pouilloux.Google Scholar
  172. Whitcher (Kansa), Sara E. 1999. Animals, Environment and Society: A Zooarchaeological Approach to the Late Chalcolithic–Early Bronze I Transition in the Southern Levant. PhD diss., University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  173. Whitcher (Kansa), Sara E., Thomas E. Levy, and Caroline Grigson. 1998. “Recent Faunal Analyses at Shiqmim, Israel: A Preliminary Analysis of the 1993 Assemblage.” In Archaeozoology of the Near East III. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on the Archaezoology of Southwestern Asia and Adjacent Areas, edited by Hijkle Buitenuis, Lazlo Bartosiewicz and Alice M. Choyke, 103–116. Groningen: ARC Publications.Google Scholar
  174. Whitcher Kansa, Sara E. 2004. “Animal Consumption at Early Bronze Age I Afridar: What the Bones Tell Us.” ‘Atiqot 45: 279–297.Google Scholar
  175. Yannai, Eli and Ofer Marder. 2001. “Lod.” Excavations and Surveys in Israel 112: 63–65.Google Scholar
  176. Yekutieli, Yuval. 2004. “Landscape of Control: An Early Bronze Age Ascent in the Southern Judean Desert.” Ancient Near Eastern Studies 41: 5–37.Google Scholar
  177. Yekutieli, Yuval, and Ram Gophna. 1994. “The Excavations at an Early Bronze Age site near Nizzanim.” Tel Aviv 21: 162–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Yilmaz, Orhan, Saim Boztepe, and Mehmet Ertuğrul. 2012a. “The Domesticated Donkey Part 1. Species Characteristics.” Canadian Journal of Applied Sciences 3 (2): 339–353.Google Scholar
  179. Yilmaz, Orhan, Saim Boztepe, and Mehmet Ertuğrul. 2012b. “The Domesticated Donkey Part 2. Types and Breeds.” Canadian Journal of Applied Sciences 3 (2): 260–266.Google Scholar
  180. Yilmaz, Orhan, Saim Boztepe, and Mehmet Ertuğrul. 2012c. “The Domesticated Donkey. Part 3. Economic Importance, Uncommon Usages, Reproductive Traits, Genetics, Nutrition and Health Care.” Canadian Journal of Applied Sciences 3 (2): 320–338.Google Scholar
  181. Zaccagnini, Carlo. 1976. “La circolazioni dei beni.” In L’alba della civiltá. II. L’economia, edited by Sabatino Moscati, 423–582. Torino: UTET.Google Scholar
  182. Zeuner, Franz. E. 1963. A History of Domesticated Animals. London: Hutchinson.Google Scholar
  183. Zidane, Anuar. 2010. Animal Bones and the Emergence of Urban Society int eh Early Bronze Age of the southern Levant: The Faunal Remains of Ashkelon-Barnea. Unpublished MA diss., University of Haifa, Haifa.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ianir Milevski
    • 1
  • Liora Kolska Horwitz
    • 2
  1. 1.Israel Antiquities AuthorityJerusalemIsrael
  2. 2.The Hebrew University of JerusalemJerusalemIsrael

Personalised recommendations