Pulmonary stenosis is a common cardiac defect. It is present either in isolation or associated with other congenital heart defects. Obstruction may occur at various levels. The presentation and clinical manifestations depend on the age, severity of the obstruction and associated cardiac defects. The goal of treatment is to relieve obstruction without significant pulmonary regurgitation or residual gradient. Currently catheter-based interventions remain the standard treatment for acute symptoms and to prevent progressive right ventricular failure related to pulmonary stenosis. Surgery is reserved for failed catheter interventions, multi-level obstructions, complex cases or need for additional source of pulmonary blood flow.
KeywordsBalloon pulmonary valvuloplasty Pulmonary regurgitation Pulmonary stenosis Pulmonic valve Pulmonary valve replacement Right ventricular failure Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement
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