Atrial Septal Defects

  • Iman NaimiEmail author
  • Jason F. Deen


Atrial septal defects (ASDs) are common and make up 7–10% of all congenital heart defects. They cause left to right intracardiac shunting and complications are related to the volume and duration of shunting. Approximately 50% of ASDs are treated via surgical or transcatheter means, while the remainders close spontaneously or are hemodynamically insignificant. Secundum ASDs are the most common, followed by primum and sinus venosus types. Echocardiogram as well as cross sectional imaging can be utilized in diagnosis of ASD type and associated cardiovascular anomalies, which occur in a third of patients. ASDs lead to asymptomatic right-sided heart dilation in the young child, however, if left unrepaired, may be associated with fatigue, dyspnea, and exercise intolerance in the adolescent or young adult. Longstanding hemodynamically significant ASDs are associated with atrial arrhythmias and, in rare cases, pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure. Untreated ASD is also a risk factor for paradoxical embolisms that could lead to stroke and transient ischemic attack. Closure is indicated for hemodynamically significant defects even in asymptomatic patient and recommendations are outlined by the American Heart Association.


Amplatzer atrial septal occluder Atrial septal defect Patent foramen ovale Primum atrial septal defect Secundum atrial septal defect Sinus venosus atrial septal defect 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Cardiology, Seattle Children’s HospitalUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Division of Cardiology, Department of MedicineUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

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