The heart is served by intrinsic, efficient and coordinated electrical activation provided by its specialised conduction system. The conduction system can be damaged, requiring the provision of pacing to maintain an adequate cardiac output. Causes of cardiac conduction disease are most commonly idiopathic or degenerative relating to calcium deposition. Pacing is not uncommonly indicated after cardiac surgery, particularly following procedures on the aortic valve especially in the presence of underlying conduction disease. The disturbance and damage caused to the conduction system may be short lived and resolve whilst back-up pacing support is provided by a temporary pacing system or more permanent damage may result requiring a permanent pacing solution. Managing a temporary pacing system and determining if and when to convert to a permanent pacing approach can at times be difficult. This chapter provides an overview of standard indications for pacemakers and implantable defibrillators as well as clarifies basic principles of pacing including commonly used terms such as threshold and sensitivity. It explores new developments in the sphere of cardiac pacing such as pacemakers in an MRI field as well as emerging technologies namely leadless and His bundle pacing. It includes a practical section on troubleshooting of temporary epicardial systems and provides insight into cases where cardiac surgeons may be called upon to assist cardiology colleagues, namely, surgical lead implantation or lead extraction.
KeywordsCardiac pacing Defibrillator Heart block Implantable cardioverter defibrillator Pacemaker
- 2.Connolly SJ, Hallstrom AP, Cappato R, et al. Meta-analysis of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator secondary prevention trials. AVID, CASH and CIDS studies. Antiarrhythmics vs implantable defibrillator study. Cardiac arrest study hamburg. Canadian implantable defibrillator study. Eur Heart J. 2000;21:2071–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 3.Brignole M, Auricchio A, Baron-Esquivias G, et al. 2013 ESC Guidelines on cardiac pacing and cardiac resynchronization therapy: the Task Force on cardiac pacing and resynchronization therapy of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Developed in collaboration with the European heart rhythm association (EHRA). Eur Heart J. 2013;34(29):2281–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 8.van Rees JB, de Bie MK, Thijssen J, Borleffs CJW, Schalij MJ, van Erven L. Implantation-related complications of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy devices: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;58:995–1000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 18.American Society of Anesthesiologists. Practice advisory for the perioperative management of patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices: pacemakers and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators: an updated report by the american society of anesthesiologists task force on perioperative management of patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices. Anesthesiology. 2011;114:247–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 29.Epstein AE, DiMarco JP, Ellenbogen KA, et al. ACC/AHA/HRS 2008 guidelines for device-based therapy of cardiac rhythm abnormalities: a report of the American college of cardiology/American heart association task force on practice guidelines (writing committee to revise the ACC/AHA/NASPE 2002 guideline update for implantation of cardiac pacemakers and antiarrhythmia devices) developed in collaboration with the American association for thoracic surgery and society of thoracic surgeons. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;51:e1–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar