Overview of Cervical and Anal Cytopathology

  • Xinmin ZhangEmail author
  • Kathriel Brister
Part of the Practical Anatomic Pathology book series (PAP)


Pap test has been an excellent example of success in medicine because of its role in remarkably reducing the incidence and death rate of cervical cancer. However, it is not a perfect test, and to certain degree, it became the victim of its success due to overexpectation of the public that led to a stringent government regulation of the practice. With the evolving of our knowledge of high-risk HPV infection in the development of cervical cancer, HPV molecular tests have been developed to enhance the Pap test in the early detection of cervical cancer. HPV vaccination has further advanced the battle against the development of cervical cancer by blocking the initial viral infection. This chapter briefly updates the current status of cervical cancer prevention and early detection, and the government regulation on pertinent cytology practice. Anal smear has recently emerged as a new approach to detect anal epithelial dysplastic changes; common questions in daily anal-rectal cytology are also discussed.


Pap smear Dysplasia HPV infection HPV test Anal-rectal cytology Bethesda system CLIA 88 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PathologyCooper University HospitalCamdenUSA
  2. 2.Department of PathologyHoward University College of Medicine, Howard University HospitalWashington, DCUSA

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