Optimal Allocation of Distributed Generation Using Clustered Firefly Algorithm

  • K. Banumalar
  • B. V. Manikandan
  • S. Sundara Mahalingam
Conference paper


Integration of distributed generation units (DGs) in distribution systems aims to enhance the system performance. Location and the sizing are the two important factors on the network power loss. This work proposes a clustered firefly algorithm (CFFA) to reduce the distribution system loss, simultaneous optimal placement and sizing of the distributed generation resources in radial distribution systems studied. The simulation is done on IEEE-69 bus network in MATLAB software. The simulated results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed clustered firefly algorithm compared with other optimization algorithms.


Distributed generation (DG) Optimal DG location Optimal DG size Loss minimization Radial distribution system 



distributed generation


clustered firefly algorithm


power loss index


total real power losses with DG


total real power losses without DG

Pi and Pj

net real power injection in bus ‘i’ and ‘j’.

Qi and Qj

net reactive power injection in bus ‘i’ and ‘j.


resistance between bus ‘i’ and ‘j’.

Vi and Vj

voltage at bus ‘i’ and ‘j

δi and δj

angle at bus ‘i’ and ‘j

|Vi|min and |Vi|max

minimum and maximum limit of voltage in bus ‘i’.


maximum limit of current in bus ‘i’ and ‘j’.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Banumalar
    • 1
  • B. V. Manikandan
    • 1
  • S. Sundara Mahalingam
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical and Electronics EngineeringMepco Schlenk Engineering CollegeSivakasiIndia

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