Production and Characterization of Bio-Fertilizers from Tree Leaves Utilizing an Automated Hot Composting Chamber with Cyber-Physical Systems

  • Mahendran Rajagopalan
  • Vijayakumar ArumugamEmail author
  • Uma Dharmaligam
  • Kavinilavu Anbalagan
  • Anupriya Chandrasekaran
Conference paper


Composting is a reliable process to transform waste dry leaves into superior quality compost. In this research, we proposed a rapid composting technique for converting powdered dry leaves to mature compost in an automated rotary drum composter and for monitoring the physicochemical properties of the pile by using cyber-physical systems. Here, the solar energy-based equipments were utilized for grinding dry leaves and energizing a heating coil inside the composter. The optimal temperature of the composter had been optimized and maintained at 50–55 °C by using closed-loop heating coils and monitored by using temperature sensors. During composting, the moisture content (MC) decreased with respect to the duration. On the contrary, the pH and electrical conductivity (EC) gradually increased as the dried leaves are being converted to mature compost. The aim of this research is to automate the composter by using sensing devices and monitor the physicochemical characteristics in terms of pH, electrical conductivity, moisture content, and temperature. Here, we anticipated a cost-effective, less maintenance, and eco-friendly quick-composting technique for obtaining good quality of compost from the leaves within 30 days.


Rotary drum composting Physicochemical parameters Dry leaves Process monitoring Compost quality Cyber-physical systems 





Moisture content


Electrical conductivity





The authors would like to thank the Tamil Nadu State Council of Science and Technology for the financial support for this research.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mahendran Rajagopalan
    • 1
  • Vijayakumar Arumugam
    • 1
    Email author
  • Uma Dharmaligam
    • 2
  • Kavinilavu Anbalagan
    • 1
  • Anupriya Chandrasekaran
    • 1
  1. 1.Anjalai Ammal Mahalingam Engineering College (Anna University)KovilvenniIndia
  2. 2.School of EEESASTRA Deemed UniversityTirumalaisamudramIndia

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