A Review of Electric Vehicle Technologies

  • P. Ravi Kumar
  • C. Gowri Shankar
  • R. Uthirasamy
  • V. J. Vijayalakshmi
Conference paper


Electric vehicles (EVs) have gained remarkable attention due to growing concerns over global warming and the depletion of fossil fuels in the last decade. The propulsion system in EVs comprises electric motors, which are fed by energy storage units through power electronic devices. Due to limitations of conventional energy storage systems in terms of cost, sizing, management, energy and power density, it has become necessary to have an energy generating unit along with the energy storage unit. Effective utilization of energy in EVs can be carried out with the incorporation of advanced power electronics technologies. This chapter reviews the various classifications of EVs, electrical propulsion systems, energy storage systems and energy management systems. This chapter also highlights the various issues to be considered for effective electrification in EVs.


Electric Vehicle Energy Management System Energy Storage System 



Electric Vehicle


Internal Combustion Engines


Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle


Hybrid Electric Vehicle


All Electric Vehicles


Power Electronic Converters


Battery Electric Vehicle


Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle


Electric Propulsion System


Energy Storage System


Plugin Electric Vehicle


Ultra capacitor


Electric Double-layer Capacitors


Energy Management System


Rule Based


Real Time Optimizations


  1. 1.
    Chan CC (2007) The state of the art of electric, hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles. Proc IEEE 95(4):704–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pesaran A et al (2006) Energy storage requirement analysis for advanced vehicles (fuel cell, mild hybrid, and plug-in hybrid). In: NREL Deliverable Report in Fulfillment of FY2006 August Milestone for Energy Storage Task. Midwest Research Institute (MRI)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mikkelsen KB (2010) Design and evaluation of hybrid energy storage systems for electric powertrains. University of Waterloo, WaterlooGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mehrdad Ehsani YG, Ali E (2010) Modern electric, hybrid electric, and fuel cell vehicles, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton, p 534Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Garner IF (1991) Vehicle auxiliary power applications for solar cells. In: Eighth international conference on automotive electronicsGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Emadi A, Williamson SS, Khaligh A (2006) Power electronics intensive solutions for advanced electric, hybrid electric, and fuel cell vehicular power systems. IEEE Trans Power Electron 21(3):567–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Emadi A, Rajashekara K, Williamson SS, Lukic SM (2005) Topological overview of hybrid electric and fuel cell vehicular power system architectures and configurations. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 54:763–770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Karden E et al (2007) Energy storage devices for future hybrid electric vehicles. J Power Sources 168(1):2–11. [78]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chen W, Round S, Duke R (2002) Design of an auxiliary power distribution network for an electric vehicle. In: Proceedings. The first IEEE international workshop on electronic design, test and applicationsGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chau KT, Wong YS, Chan CC (1999) An overview of energy sources for electric vehicles. Energy Convers Manag 40:1021–1039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lukic SM, Cao J, Bansal RC, Rodriguez F, Emadi A (2008) Energy storage systems forautomotive applications. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 55(6):2258–2267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Azidin FA, Hannan MA, Mohamed A (2013) Renewable energy technologies and hybridelectric vehicle challenges. Prz Elektrotech 89(8):150–156Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Xing Y, Ma EWM, Tsui KL, Pecht M (2011) Battery management systems in electric andhybrid vehicles. Energies 4:1840–1857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rahimi-Eichi H, Ojha U, Baronti F, Chow MY (2013) Battery management system: an overview of its application in the smart grid and electric vehicles. IEEE Ind Electron Mag, [June]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Emadi A (2011) Transportation 2.0. IEEE Power Energ Mag 9(4):18–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Richardson DB (2013) Electric vehicles and the electric grid: a review of modeling approaches impacts, and renewable energy integration. Renew Sust Energ Rev 19:247–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Ravi Kumar
    • 1
  • C. Gowri Shankar
    • 2
  • R. Uthirasamy
    • 1
  • V. J. Vijayalakshmi
    • 1
  1. 1.KPR Institute of Engineering and TechnologyCoimbatoreIndia
  2. 2.KSR College of EngineeringTiruchengodeIndia

Personalised recommendations