Busy health care providers of sexual and gender minority patients may feel lost when trying to identify long-term priorities for the patient’s care. The motivated clinician seeking guidance on treating special populations may feel discouraged by the limited quality and clarity of currently available evidence. This chapter discusses the challenges of applying mainstream clinical prevention guidelines to sexual and gender minorities. Where major guidelines and interventions can be plausibly adapted, those recommendations are stated. Prevention practices across domains of violence, mental health, substance use, cancer, infectious disease, and bone density are discussed.
KeywordsSocial determinants of health Cancer screening Transgender health Prevention strategies Tobacco cessation Alcohol abuse Mental health Intimate partner violence
- American Medical Association. Opinion 2.02: physicians’ obligations in preventing, identifying, and treating violence and abuse. Chicago: American Medical Association; 2008. http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/physician-resources/medical-ethics/code-medical-ethics/opinion202.page. Accessed 21 Jan 2019.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Intimate partner violence: risk and protective factors. http://www.cdc.gov/ViolencePrevention/intimatepartnerviolence/riskprotectivefactors.html. Accessed 20 Dec 2012.
- Centers for Disease Control. Recommended immunization schedule for adults aged 19 or older, United States; 2018. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/hcp/imz/adult.html. Accessed 21 Jan 2019.
- Deutsch M. Guidelines for the primary and gender-affirming care of transgender and gender nonbinary people. 2nd ed. San Francisco: UCSF; 2019. http://transhealth.ucsf.edu/pdf/Transgender-PGACG-6-17-16.pdf. Accessed 19 Jan 2019.Google Scholar
- Herrmann N, Mittmann N, Silver IL, et al. A validation study of the geriatric depression scale short form. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 1996;11:457–60. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1166(199605)11:5<457::AID-GPS325>3.0.CO;2-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- http://www.agencymeddirectors.wa.gov/Files/AssessmentTools/9-cageform.pdf. Accessed 21 Jan 2019.
- http://www.coloradohealthpartnerships.com/provider/care/CRAFFT.pdf. Accessed 21 Jan 2019.
- https://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/Newsletter/winter2004/Newsletter_Number3.htm. Accessed 21 Jan 2019.
- https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhis/tobacco/tobacco_glossary.htm. Accessed 21 Jan 2019.
- Institute for Work and Health. Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Prevention; 2014. https://www.iwh.on.ca/what-researchers-mean-by/primary-secondary-and-tertiary-prevention. Accessed 21 Jan 2019.
- Institute of Medicine (US) committee on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health issues and research gaps and opportunities. The health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people: building a foundation for better understanding. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2011. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64806/. https://doi.org/10.17226/13128.
- Muller EE, Rebe K, Chirwa TF, Struthers H, McIntyre J, Lewis DA. The prevalence of Human Papillomavirus infections and associated risk factors in men-who-have-sex-with-men in Cape Town, South Africa. BMC Infect Dis. 2016;16(1):440. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-016-1706-9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol’s effects on the body. https://www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/alcohols-effects-body. Accessed 21 Jan 2019.
- New York State Department of Health AIDS Institute. Anal dysplasia and cancer guideline. https://www.hivguidelines.org/hiv-care/anal-dysplasia-cancer/. Accessed 21 Jan 2019.
- O’Connell M, Boat T, Warner K. Preventing mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders among young people. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2009.Google Scholar
- Smith S, Chen J, Basile KC, Gilbert LK, Merrick MT, Patel N, et al. National intimate partner and sexual violence survey (NISVS): 2010–2012 state report. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Atlanta, GA; 2017. https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/NISVS-StateReportBook.pdf. Accessed 19 Jan 2019.Google Scholar
- Stop Bullying.gov. Understanding the roles of health and safety professionals in community-wide bullying prevention efforts. https://www.stopbullying.gov/sites/default/files/2017-09/hrsa_guide_health-and-safety-professionals_508v2.pdf. Accessed 21 Jan 2019.
- Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. AUDIT-C Overview. https://www.integration.samhsa.gov/images/res/tool_auditc.pdf. Accessed 21 Jan 2019.
- Taft A, O’Doherty L, Hegarty K, Ramsay J, Davidson L, Feder G. Screening women for intimate partner violence in healthcare settings. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013, 2013;(4):CD007007. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD007007.pub2.
- The Williams Institute. Intimate partner violence and sexual abuse among LGBT people: a review of existing research. November 2015. https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/wp-content/uploads/Intimate-Partner-Violence-and-Sexual-Abuse-among-LGBT-People.pdf. Accessed 21 Jan 2019.
- U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for intimate partner violence and abuse of elderly and vulnerable adults. http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspsipv.htm. Accessed 20 Dec 2012.
- United States Preventive Services Task Force. Final recommendation statement on HIV Infection: screening. https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/RecommendationStatementFinal/human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-infection-screening#copyright-and-source-information . Accessed 21 Jan 2019.
- US Department of Health and Human Services. Alcohol alert. https://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/aa63/aa63.htm. Accessed 21 Jan 2019.
- US Department of Veterans Affairs. Primary care of veterans with HIV: anal dysplasia. https://www.hiv.va.gov/provider/manual-primary-care/anal-dysplasia.asp. Accessed 24 Feb 2015.