Laparoscopic and Robotic Reconstruction of the Upper Genitourinary Tract

  • Ryan L. Steinberg
  • Jeffrey C. GahanEmail author


Reconstruction of the upper urinary tract has historically been performed as an open surgical operation. Reasons for this included a combination of previously insufficient laparoscopic equipment and mastery of a skill set with a steep learning curve (e.g., intracorporal suturing). With technologic advances in laparoscopy, and perhaps even more significantly the addition of robotic assistance, minimally invasive approaches in upper tract urologic reconstruction have increased in scope. Currently, even uncommon and challenging reconstructive cases are being performed in a minimally invasive manner. This chapter seeks to discuss some of the less common minimally invasive reconstructive surgeries and offer a detailed description of each in combination with a list of necessary equipment. Specific topics covered include distal ureteral reconstruction (ureteroneocystostomy, psoas hitch, Boari flap), retrocaval ureter, nephropexy, substitution ureteroplasty, and ureteral replacement. A brief review of the literature is also covered where applicable.


Minimally invasive surgery Psoas hitch Boari flap Retrocaval ureter Nephropexy 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of UrologyUniversity of Texas SouthwesternDallasUSA

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