Advertisement

Laparoscopic and Robotic Reconstruction of the Upper Genitourinary Tract

  • Ryan L. Steinberg
  • Jeffrey C. GahanEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Reconstruction of the upper urinary tract has historically been performed as an open surgical operation. Reasons for this included a combination of previously insufficient laparoscopic equipment and mastery of a skill set with a steep learning curve (e.g., intracorporal suturing). With technologic advances in laparoscopy, and perhaps even more significantly the addition of robotic assistance, minimally invasive approaches in upper tract urologic reconstruction have increased in scope. Currently, even uncommon and challenging reconstructive cases are being performed in a minimally invasive manner. This chapter seeks to discuss some of the less common minimally invasive reconstructive surgeries and offer a detailed description of each in combination with a list of necessary equipment. Specific topics covered include distal ureteral reconstruction (ureteroneocystostomy, psoas hitch, Boari flap), retrocaval ureter, nephropexy, substitution ureteroplasty, and ureteral replacement. A brief review of the literature is also covered where applicable.

Keywords

Minimally invasive surgery Psoas hitch Boari flap Retrocaval ureter Nephropexy 

References

  1. 1.
    Clayman RV, Kavoussi LR, Soper NJ, Dierks SM, Merety KS, Darcy MD, et al. Laparoscopic nephrectomy. N Engl J Med. 1991;324(19):1370–1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schuessler WW, Grune MT, Tecuanhuey LV, Preminger GM. Laparoscopic dismembered pyeloplasty. J Urol. 1993;150(6):1795–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Reddy PK, Evans RM. Laparoscopic ureteroneocystostomy. J Urol. 1994;152(6 Pt 1):2057–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ozdemir E, Ozturk U, Celen S, Sucak A, Gunel M, Guney G, et al. Urinary complications of gynecologic surgery: iatrogenic urinary tract system injuries in Obstet Gynecol operations. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2011;38(3):217–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ibeanu OA, Chesson RR, Echols KT, Nieves M, Busangu F, Nolan TE. Urinary tract injury during hysterectomy based on universal cystoscopy. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;113(1):6–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lee JS, Choe JH, Lee HS, Seo JT. Urologic complications following obstetric and gynecologic surgery. Korean J Urol. 2012;53(11):795–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tas S, Tugcu V, Mutlu B, Karadag S, Bitkin A, Yucel M, et al. Incidence of ureteral stricture after ureterorenoscopic pneumatic lithotripsy for distal ureteral calculi. Arch Ital Urol Androl. 2011;83(3):141–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Roberts WW, Cadeddu JA, Micali S, Kavoussi LR, Moore RG. Ureteral stricture formation after removal of impacted calculi. J Urol. 1998;159(3):723–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Harmon WJ, Sershon PD, Blute ML, Patterson DE, Segura JW. Ureteroscopy: current practice and long-term complications. J Urol. 1997;157(1):28–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dalpiaz O, Ehrlich G, Quehenberger F, Pummer K, Zigeuner R. Distal ureterectomy is a safe surgical option in patients with urothelial carcinoma of the distal ureter. Urol Oncol. 2014;32(1):34 e1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jeldres C, Lughezzani G, Sun M, Isbarn H, Shariat SF, Budaus L, et al. Segmental ureterectomy can safely be performed in patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter. J Urol. 2010;183(4):1324–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wolf JS Jr, Elashry OM, Clayman RV. Long-term results of endoureterotomy for benign ureteral and ureteroenteric strictures. J Urol. 1997;158(3. Pt 1):759–64.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wenske S, Olsson CA, Benson MC. Outcomes of distal ureteral reconstruction through reimplantation with psoas hitch, Boari flap, or ureteroneocystostomy for benign or malignant ureteral obstruction or injury. Urology. 2013;82(1):231–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kozinn SI, Canes D, Sorcini A, Moinzadeh A. Robotic versus open distal ureteral reconstruction and reimplantation for benign stricture disease. J Endourol. 2012;26(2):147–51.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hemal AK, Nayyar R, Gupta NP, Dorairajan LN. Experience with robotic assisted laparoscopic surgery in upper tract urolithiasis. Can J Urol. 2010;17(4):5299–305.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ogan K, Abbott JT, Wilmot C, Pattaras JG. Laparoscopic ureteral reimplant for distal ureteral strictures. JSLS. 2008;12(1):13–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Soares RS, de Abreu RA Jr, Tavora JE. Laparoscopic ureteral reimplant for ureteral stricture. Int Braz J Urol. 2010;36(1):38–43.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rassweiler JJ, Gozen AS, Erdogru T, Sugiono M, Teber D. Ureteral reimplantation for management of ureteral strictures: a retrospective comparison of laparoscopic and open techniques. Eur Urol. 2007;51(2):512–22; discussion 22-3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lee Z, Simhan J, Parker DC, Reilly C, Llukani E, Lee DI, et al. Novel use of indocyanine green for intraoperative, real-time localization of ureteral stenosis during robot-assisted ureteroureterostomy. Urology. 2013;82(3):729–33.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gupta NP, Hemal AK, Singh I, Khaitan A. Retroperitoneoscopic ureterolysis and reconstruction of retrocaval ureter. J Endourol. 2001;15(3):291–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ramalingam M, Selvarajan K. Laparoscopic transperitoneal repair of retrocaval ureter: report of two cases. J Endourol. 2003;17(2):85–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chen S, Xu B, Liu J, Ren Q, Hu X, Yang Y, et al. Retroperitoneal laparoscopic reconstruction for retrocaval ureter: experience and literature review. J Endourol. 2012;26(9):1147–52.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chen Z, Chen X, Wu ZH, Luo YC, Li NN. Treatment of retrocaval ureter by retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureteroureterostomy: experience on 12 patients. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2011;21(9):803–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ding GQ, Xu LW, Li XD, Li GH, Yu YL, Yu DM, et al. Pure transperitoneal laparoscopic correction of retrocaval ureter. Chin Med J. 2012;125(13):2382–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Alkhudair WK, Seyam R, Al Zahrani HM, Al Otaibi MF, Al Taweel W. Robotic uretero-ureterostomy of the retrocaval ureter without excision of the retrocaval segment. Can Urol Assoc J. 2012;6(2):E38–41.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Simforoosh N, Nouri-Mahdavi K, Tabibi A. Laparoscopic pyelopyelostomy for retrocaval ureter without excision of the retrocaval segment: first report of 6 cases. J Urol. 2006;175(6):2166–9; discussion 9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Humby G, Higgins TT. A one-stage operation for hypospadias. Br J Surg. 1941;29(113):84–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Somerville JJ, Naude JH. Segmental ureteric replacement: an animal study using a free non-pedicled graft. Urol Res. 1984;12(2):115–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Naude JH. Buccal mucosal grafts in the treatment of ureteric lesions. BJU Int. 1999;83(7):751–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Badawy AA, Abolyosr A, Saleem MD, Abuzeid AM. Buccal mucosa graft for ureteral stricture substitution: initial experience. Urology. 2010;76(4):971–5; discussion 5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kroepfl D, Loewen H, Klevecka V, Musch M. Treatment of long ureteric strictures with buccal mucosal grafts. BJU Int. 2010;105(10):1452–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Pandey A, Dican R, Beier J, Keller H. Buccal mucosal graft in reconstructive urology: uses beyond urethral stricture. Int J Urol. 2014;21(7):732–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Arora S, Campbell L, Tourojman M, Pucheril D, Jones LR, Rogers C. Robotic buccal mucosal graft ureteroplasty for complex ureteral stricture. Urology. 2017;110:257–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lee Z, Waldorf BT, Cho EY, Liu JC, Metro MJ, Eun DD. Robotic ureteroplasty with buccal mucosa graft for the management of complex ureteral strictures. J Urol. 2017;198(6):1430–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zhao LC, Weinberg AC, Lee Z, Ferretti MJ, Koo HP, Metro MJ, Eun DD, Stifelman MD. Robotic Ureteral Reconstruction Using Buccal Mucosa Grafts: A Multiinstitutional Experience. Eur Urol. 2017. pii: S0302–2838(17)31000-X.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2017.11.015. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29239749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Moore EV, Weber R, Woodward ER, Moore JG, Goodwin WE. Isolated ileal loops for ureteral repair. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1956;102(1):87–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Waters WB, Whitmore WF 3rd, Lage AL, Gittes RF. Segmental replacement of the ureter using tapered and nontapered ileum. Investig Urol. 1981;18(4):258–61.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gill IS, Savage SJ, Senagore AJ, Sung GT. Laparoscopic ileal ureter. J Urol. 2000;163(4):1199–202.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Stein RJ, Turna B, Patel NS, Weight CJ, Nguyen MM, Shah G, et al. Laparoscopic assisted ileal ureter: technique, outcomes and comparison to the open procedure. J Urol. 2009;182(3):1032–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sim A, Todenhofer T, Mischinger J, Halalsheh O, Boettge J, Rausch S, et al. Totally intracorporeal replacement of the ureter using whole-mount ileum. J Endourol. 2014;28(10):1165–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wagner JR, Schimpf MO, Cohen JL. Robot-assisted laparoscopic ileal ureter. JSLS. 2008;12(3):306–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Roth JD, Monn MF, Szymanski KM, Bihrle R, Mellon MJ. Ureteral reconstruction with ileum: long-term follow-up of renal function. Urology. 2017;104:225–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Austen M, Kalble T. Secondary malignancies in different forms of urinary diversion using isolated gut. J Urol. 2004;172(3):831–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hubner WA, Schramek P, Pfluger H. Laparoscopic nephropexy. J Urol. 1994;152(4):1184–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Plas E, Daha K, Riedl CR, Hubner WA, Pfluger H. Long-term followup after laparoscopic nephropexy for symptomatic nephroptosis. J Urol. 2001;166(2):449–52.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Matsui Y, Matsuta Y, Okubo K, Yoshimura K, Terai A, Arai Y. Laparoscopic nephropexy: treatment outcome and quality of life. Int J Urol. 2004;11(1):1–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Barber NJ, Thompson PM. Nephroptosis and nephropexy--hung up on the past? Eur Urol. 2004;46(4):428–33.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Chueh SC, Hsieh JT, Chen J, Young YL, Chen SC, Tu YP. Retroperitoneoscopic nephropexy for symptomatic nephroptosis. Surg Endosc. 2002;16(11):1603–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Wyler SF, Sulser T, Casella R, Hauri D, Bachmann A. Retroperitoneoscopic nephropexy for symptomatic nephroptosis using a modified three-point fixation technique. Urology. 2005;66(3):644–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    El-Shazly MA. Laparoscopic nephropexy using polyprolene mesh. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. 2011;21(3):188–90.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Baldassarre E, Marcangeli P, Vigano M, Vittoria I, Pone D, Gillo A, et al. Robotic nephropexy in case of symptomatic nephroptosis. Arch Ital Urol Androl. 2011;83(3):160–2.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Gozen AS, Rassweiler JJ, Neuwinger F, Bross S, Teber D, Alken P, et al. Long-term outcome of laparoscopic retroperitoneal nephropexy. J Endourol. 2008;22(10):2263–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Golab A, Slojewski M, Gliniewicz B, Sikorski A. Retroperitoneoscopic nephropexy in the treatment of symptomatic nephroptosis with 2-point renal fixation. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. 2009;19(4):356–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Fornara P, Doehn C, Jocham D. Laparoscopic nephropexy: 3-year experience. J Urol. 1997;158(5):1679–83.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of UrologyUniversity of Texas SouthwesternDallasUSA

Personalised recommendations