Advertisement

Resilience and Conflict Resolution: UN Peacekeeping in Mali

  • Chiara Ruffa
  • Sebastiaan Rietjens
  • Emma Nygren
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter critically examines how the UN builds resilience in the Sahel region. After providing an overview of the UN approach to the region, the analysis focuses on the UN peacekeeping mission in Mali (MINUSMA), showing that the mission focuses primarily on providing security rather than enhancing state institutions and societies’ ability to withstand shocks. MINUSMA is a crucial case for understanding why even complex, ambitious, all-encompassing, and multidimensional peacekeeping missions might ultimately be unable to build resilience. The chapter concludes by identifying some preconditions to achieve this goal, and most notably need to bring the local population to the centre and develop UN mandates to build peace from below.

References

  1. Autesserre, S. (2014a). Going Micro: Emerging and Future Peacekeeping Research. International Peacekeeping, 21(4), 492–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Autesserre, S. (2014b). Peaceland: Conflict Resolution and the Everyday Politics of International Intervention. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Autesserre, S. (2019, January/February). The Crisis of Peacekeeping: Why the UN Can’t End Wars. Foreign Affairs.Google Scholar
  4. BBC. (2015, November 20). World’s Most Dangerous Peacekeeping Mission.Google Scholar
  5. Boeke, S., & Scuurman, B. (2015). Operation Serval: The Strategic Analysis of the French Intervention in Mali: 2013–2014. Journal of Strategic Studies, 38(6), 801–825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bove, V., Ruffa, C., & Ruggeri, A. (Forthcoming). Why and How Peacekeeping Composition Matters. Oxford University Press. Google Scholar
  7. Campbell, S. P. (2008). (Dis)integration, Incoherence and Complexity in UN Post-conflict Interventions. International Peacekeeping, 15(4), 556–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Campbell, S. P., & Kaspersen, A. T. (2008). The UN’s Reforms: Confronting Integration Barriers’. International Peacekeeping, 15(4), 470–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chauzal, G., & Van Damme, T. (2015). The Roots of Mali’s Conflict: Moving Beyond the 2012 Crisis (CRU Report). Netherlands Institute of International Relations Clingendael.Google Scholar
  10. Danish Institute of International Studies. (2017). African Peacekeepers in Mali. Copenhagen: DIIS.Google Scholar
  11. De Coning, C., & Friis, K. (2011). Coherence and Coordination: The Limits of the Comprehensive Approach. Journal of International Peacekeeping, 15(1), 243–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Donini, A. (2011). Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Integration or Independence of Humanitarian Action. International Review of the Red Cross, 93(881), 141–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dorn, A. W. (2010). United Nations Peacekeeping Intelligence. In L. K. Johnson (Ed.), Oxford Handbook of National Security Intelligence (pp. 275–295). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Dorn, A. W. (2016). Smart Peacekeeping: Toward Tech-Enabled UN Operations. New York: International Peace Institute.Google Scholar
  15. Duursma, A. (2018). Information Processing Challenges in Peacekeeping Operations: A Case Study on Peacekeeping Information Collection Efforts in Mali. International Peacekeeping, 25(3), 446–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Elron, E., Shamir, B., & Ben-Ari, E. (1999). Why Don’t They Fight Each Other? Cultural Diversity and Operational Unity in Multinational Forces. Armed Forces & Society, 26(1), 73–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fjelde, H., Hultman, L., & Nilsson, D. (2019). Protection Through Presence: UN Peacekeeping and the Costs of Targeting Civilians. International Organization, 73(1), 103–113.Google Scholar
  18. Fortna, V. P. (2008). Does Peacekeeping Work? Shaping Belligerents’ Choices After Civil War. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Friis, K. (2012). Which Afghanistan? Military, Humanitarian, and State-Building Identities in the Afghan Theater. Security Studies, 21(2), 266–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gressly, D. (2013). How to Build Resilience in the Sahel. The Guardian.Google Scholar
  21. Gubbels, P. (2012). Ending the Everyday Emergency: Resilience and Children in the Sahel. https://www.preventionweb.net/publications/view/27663.
  22. Hultman, L., Kathman, J., & Shannon, M. (2013). United Nations Peacekeeping and Civilian Protection in Civil War. American Journal of Political Science, 57(4), 875–891.Google Scholar
  23. Hultman, L., Kathman, J., & Shannon, M. (2014). Beyond Keeping Peace: United Nations Effectiveness in the Midst of Fighting. American Political Science Review, 108(4), 737–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. International Peace Institute. (2018). Threats and Drivers of Mass Atrocities in Mali. https://www.ipinst.org/2018/06/threats-and-drivers-of-mass-atrocity-in-mali.
  25. Karlsrud, J., & Osland, K. M. (2016). Between Self-Interest and Solidarity: Norway’s Return to UN Peacekeeping? International Peacekeeping, 23(5), 784–803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Karlsrud, J., & Smith, A. C. (2015). Europe’s Return to UN Peacekeeping in Africa? Lessons from Mali (Providing for Peacekeeping No. 11). New York: International Peace Institute.Google Scholar
  27. Levy, J. S. (2008). Case Studies: Types, Designs, and Logics of Inference. Conflict Management and Peace Science, 25(1), 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lotze, W. (2015). United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA). In J. Koops, T. Tardy, N. MacQueen, & P. Williams (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of United Nations Peacekeeping Operation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199686049.013.72.
  29. Lucius, G., & Rietjens, S. J. H. (2016). Effective Civil-Military Interaction in Peace Operations—Theory and Practice. Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Metcalfe, V., Haysom, S., & Gordon, S. (2012). Trends and Challenges in Humanitarian Civil-Military Coordination: A Review of the Literature (HPG Working Paper).Google Scholar
  31. Nilsson, C., & Zetterlund, K. (2016). Sweden and the UN: A Rekindled Partnership for Peacekeeping? International Peacekeeping, 23(5), 762–783.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13533312.2016.1235097.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Paris, R. (2009). Understanding the ‘Coordination Problem’ in Postwar Statebuilding. In D. Paris & T. D. Sisk (Eds.), The Dilemmas of Statebuilding: Confronting the Contradictions of Postwar Peace Operations (pp. 53–78). Abingdon: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Reliefweb. (2018). Report of the Secretary-General on the situation in Mali (S/2018/541). https://reliefweb.int/report/mali/report-secretary-general-situation-mali-s2018541.
  34. Rietjens, S. J. H. (2017). Lifting the Fog of Hybrid War? UN Environmental Understanding in Mali. In E. Cusumano & M. Corbe (Eds.), A Civil-Military Response to Hybrid Threats (pp. 181–197). Palgrave: Basingstoke.Google Scholar
  35. Rietjens, S. J. H., & Dorn, A. W. (2017). The Evolution of Peacekeeping Intelligence. In E. Braat, F. Baudet, & J. van Woensel (Eds.), Between Learning and Law: Perspectives on Military Intelligence from the First World War to Mali (pp. 197–220). The Hague: Asser Press.Google Scholar
  36. Rietjens, S., & Ruffa, C. (2019). Understanding Coherence in UN Peacekeeping: A Conceptual Framework. International Peacekeeping, 26(4), 383–407.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13533312.2019.1596742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rousseau, D. M. (2006). Is There Such a Thing as Evidence-Based Management? Academy of Management Review, 31(2), 256–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rubinstein, R. A., Keller, D. M., & Scherger, M. E. (2008). Culture and Interoperability in Integrated Missions. International Peacekeeping, 15(4), 540–555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ruffa, C. (2014). What Peacekeepers Think and Do: An Exploratory Study of Ghanaian, Korean, French and Italian Soldiers in the UN Mission in Lebanon. Armed Forces and Society, 40(2), 199–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ruffa, C. (2017). Military Cultures and Force Employment in Peace Operations. Security Studies, 26(3), 391–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ruffa, C. (2018). Military Cultures in Peace and Stability Operations. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ruffa, C., & Vennesson, P. (2014). Fighting and Helping? A Historical-Institutionalist Explanation of NGO-Military Relations. Security Studies, 23(3), 582–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Russo, M., & Cesarani, M. (2017). Strategic Alliance Success Factors: A Literature Review on Alliance Lifecycle. International Journal of Business Administration, 8(3), 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Saideman, S. M., & Auerswald, D. P. (2014). NATO in Afghanistan. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Shetler-Jones, P. (2008). Intelligence in Integrated UN Peacekeeping Missions: The Joint Mission Analysis Centre. International Peacekeeping, 15(4), 517–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Soeters, J. M. M. L., & Heeren-Bogers, J. (2013). The Quest for ‘Evidence-Based Soldiering’. In H. Amersfoort, R. Moelker, J. M. M. L. Soeters, & D. Verweij (Eds.), The Armed Forces: Towards a Post-Interventionist Era? (pp. 117–129). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  47. United Nations. (2012, December 20). Security Council Resolution 2085: Adopted at 6898th Meeting. New York, NY: United Nations Security Council.Google Scholar
  48. United Nations. (2013, April 25). Resolution 2100 (2013): Adopted by the Security Council at Its 6952nd Meeting. New York, NY: United Nations Security Council.Google Scholar
  49. United Nations. (2014). UNOCHA. Sahel Humanitarian Response Plan 2014.Google Scholar
  50. United Nations. (2018). Building Climate Resilience and Peace, Go Hand in Hand for Africa’s Sahel. https://news.un.org/en/node/1025671/building-climate-resilience-and-peace-go-hand-in-hand-for-africas-sahel-un-forum-2. Accessed 20 March 2019.
  51. United Nations. (2019a). The Sahel. https://www.un.org/undpa/en/africa/sahel.
  52. United Nations. (2019b). Security Council Report, 2019. Mali: Chronology of Events.Google Scholar
  53. Van Willigen, N. (2016). A Dutch Return to UN Peacekeeping? International Peacekeeping, 23(5), 702–720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Van der West, K. (2016). Civil-Military Communications Within Integrated United Nations Peacekeeping: The Interaction Between the Dutch Military and Civil United Nations Entities During the MINUSMA-Mission in Gao (Mali) (Master thesis). Groningen: University of Groningen.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chiara Ruffa
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sebastiaan Rietjens
    • 3
  • Emma Nygren
    • 4
  1. 1.Swedish Defence UniversityStockholmSweden
  2. 2.Uppsala UniversityUppsalaSweden
  3. 3.Netherlands Defence AcademyBredaThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Department of Peace and ConflictUppsala UniversityUppsalaSweden

Personalised recommendations