Thermal Methods to Control Gastrointestinal Bleeding

  • Brian J. Dunkin
  • Shawn M. Purnell
  • John Joseph Nguyen-Lee


Bleeding in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a common malady that can usually be managed with the use of therapeutic endoscopy. Once a bleeding site has been endoscopically identified, there are essentially three methods used to achieve hemostasis – application of energy, mechanical control with clip or loop ligation, or injection therapy. This chapter focuses on the principles of using energy to control GI bleeding and common tools available to deliver it.


Gastrointestinal bleeding Endoscopy Electrosurgery Thermal Coagulation Fulguration Hemostasis 


  1. 1.
    Arima S, Sakata Y, Ogata S, Tominaga N, Tsuruoka N, Mannen K, et al. Evaluation of hemostasis with soft coagulation using endoscopic hemostatic forceps in comparison with metallic hemoclips for bleeding gastric ulcers: a prospective, randomized trial. J Gastroenterol. 2010;45:501–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cipolletta L, Bianco MA, Rotondano G, Piscopo R, Prisco A, Garofano ML. Prospective comparison of argon plasma coagulator and heater probe in the endoscopic treatment of major peptic ulcer bleeding. Gastrointest Endosc. 1998;48:191–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Morris ML, Tucker RD, Baron TH, Song LM. Electrosurgery in gastrointestinal endoscopy: principles to practice. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009;104(6):1563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Asge Technology Committee, Conway JD, Adler DG, Diehl DL, Farraye FA, Kantsevoy SV, et al. Endoscopic hemostatic devices. Gastrointest Endosc. 2009;69(6):987–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jung K, Moon W. Role of endoscopy in acute gastrointestinal bleeding in real clinical practice: an evidence-based review. World J Gastrointest Endosc. 2019;11(2):68–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dunkin BJ, Lyons CD. Electrosurgical energy in gastrointestinal endoscopy. In: Feldman LS, Fuchshuber PR, Jones DB, editors. The SAGES manual of fundamental use of surgical energy. New York: Springer Science + Business Media; 2012.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian J. Dunkin
    • 1
  • Shawn M. Purnell
    • 1
  • John Joseph Nguyen-Lee
    • 1
  1. 1.Houston Methodist Hospital, Department of SurgeryHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations