Advertisement

Opera and Neuroscience: A Historical Approach and Its Relevance Today

  • Lorenzo Lorusso
  • Alessandro Porro
Chapter

Abstract

Opera has played an important musical and cultural role since the fifteenth century, representing a complete artistic form. However, not much importance has been given to its possible use in the medical field as a music therapy, despite many works having shown its development over the centuries and many composers having emphasized its benefits. Recent scientific attempts have been made to apply the melodrama as a therapeutic tool, including opera therapy. These few studies have highlighted the possible areas of its application, its mechanisms from the medical point of view and the diseases linking them to various works, and in particular to specific arias and composers. The ‘melodrama’ of the romantic period seems to be the preferred choice when applying opera therapy.

This music genre could be used as an extra tool in alleviating the suffering of patients, allowing them greater openness towards the therapist and a better management of the disease in general.

Keywords

Opera therapy Music therapy Composers 

References

  1. 1.
    Hoemberg V. Handbook of neurologic music therapy. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2016.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sandrone S, Bacigaluppi M, Galloni MR, Martino G. Angelo Mosso (1846-1910). J Neurol. 2012;259(11):2513–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chritchley M, Henson RA. Music and the brain. Studies in the neurology of music. London: Heinemann; 1977.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ballantyne J. Music and the brain. Studies in the neurology of music. Proc R Soc Med. 1977;70(6):445.PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sandrone S, Bacigaluppi M, Galloni MR, Cappa SF, Moro A, Catani M, et al. Weighing brain activity with the balance. Angelo Mosso’s original manuscripts come to light. Brain. 2014;137(2):621–33.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zatorre RJ, Peretz I, editors. The biological foundations of music. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 630. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences; 2001. p. 1.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Avanzini G, Faienza C, Lopez L, Majno M, Minciacchi D, editors. The neurosciences and Music. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 999. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences; 2003. p. 1.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Quoniam N, Ergis AM, Fossati P, Peretz I, Samson S, Sarazin M, et al. Implicit and explicit emotional memory for melodies in Alzheimer’s disease and depression. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003;999(1):381–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Avanzini G, Lopez L, Koelsch S, Majno M, editors. The neurosciences and Music II. From perception to performance. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1060. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences; 2005. p. 1.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hillecke T, Nickel A, Bolay HV. Scientific perspectives on music therapy. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1060(1):271–82.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lopez L. Music therapy. The long way to evidence-based methods. Pending issues and perspectives. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1060(1):269–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Thaut MH. The future of music in therapy and medicine. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1060(1):303–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rose FC, editor. Neurology of the arts. Painting, music, literature. London: Imperial College Press; 2004.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Miller B. Neurology of the arts. Painting, music, literature. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005;76(1):148.PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rose FC, editor. Neurology of music. London: Imperial College Press; 2010.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zatorre RJ, Peretz I, Penhune V, editors. The neurosciences and Music III. Disorders and plasticity. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1169. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences; 2009. p. 1.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Drapeau J, Gosselin N, Gagnon L, Peretz I, Lorrain D. Emotional recognition from face, voice, and music in dementia of the Alzheimer type. Implications for music therapy. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1169(1):342–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Samson S, Dellacherie D, Platel H. Emotional power of music in patients with memory disorders. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1169(1):245–55.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Vanstone AD, Cuddy LL, Duffin JM, Alexander E. Exceptional preservation of memory for tunes and lyrics. Case studies of amusia, profound deafness and Alzheimer’s disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1169(1):291–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Overy K, Peretz I, Zatorre RJ, Lopez L, Majno M, editors. The neurosciences and Music IV. Learning and memory. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1252. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences; 2012. p. 1.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bigand E, Tillmann B, Peretz I, Zatorre RJ, Lopez L, et al., editors. The neurosciences and Music V. Cognitive stimulation and rehabilitation. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1337. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences; 2015. p. 1.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Samson S, Clément S, Narme P, Schiaratura L, Ehrlé N. Efficacy of musical interventions in dementia: methodological requirements of nonpharmacological trials. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2015;1337(1):249–55.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cuddy LL, Sikka R, Vanstone A. Preservation of musical memory and engagement in healthy aging and Alzheimer’s disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2015;1337(1):223–31.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Halpern AR, Golden HL, Magdalinou N, Witoonpanich P, Warren JD. Musical tasks targeting preserved and impaired functions in two dementias. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2015;1337(1):241–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Altenmüller E, Finger S, Boller F, editors. Music, neurology, and neuroscience. historical connections and perspectives. Progress in brain research, vol. 216. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2015.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Altenmüller E, Finger S, Boller F, editors. Music, neurology, and neuroscience. evolution, the musical brain, medical conditions and therapies. Progress in brain research, vol. 217. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2015.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gouk P. An enlightenment proposal for music therapy. Richard Brocklesby on music, spirit, and the passions. Progress in brain research, vol. 217. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2015. p. 159–85.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sironi VA, Riva MA. Neurological implication and neuropsychological considerations on folk music and dance. Progress in brain research, vol. 217. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2015. p. 187–205.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Thaut MH. Music as therapy in early history. Progress in brain research, vol. 217. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2015. p. 143–58.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Baird A, Samson S. Music and dementia. Progress in brain research, vol. 217. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2015. p. 207–35.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Avanzini G, Boni CA, Cattaneo P, Lopez L. Musicoterapia e relazione. Interventi riabilitativi in ambito psichiatrico, geriatrico e psicoeducativo. Milano: FrancoAngeli; 2017.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Blackburn R, Bradshaw T. Music therapy for service users with dementia. A critical review of the literature. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2014;21(10):879–88.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cesa-Bianchi M, Cristini C, Cesa-Bianchi G. La psicologia dell’invecchiamento e la creatività. In: Avanzini G, Boni CA, Cattaneo P, Lopez L, editors. Musicoterapia e relazione. Interventi riabilitativi in ambito psichiatrico, geriatrico e psicoeducativo. Milano: FrancoAngeli; 2017. p. 67–77.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cristini C. Psicologia e Musicoterapia. In: Avanzini G, Boni CA, Cattaneo P, Lopez L, editors. Musicoterapia e relazione. Interventi riabilitativi in ambito psichiatrico, geriatrico e psicoeducativo. Milano: FrancoAngeli; 2017. p. 11–21.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Loui P, Patel A, Wong LM, Gaab N, Hanser SB, et al., editors. The neurosciences and Music VI. Music, sound and health. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1423. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences; 2018. p. 1.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Edwards J. The Oxford handbook of music therapy. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2017.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hordner P. Music as medicine. The history of music therapy since antiquity. London: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group; 2000.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cordingly J. Disorders heroes in Opera. A psychiatric report. London: Plumbago Books; 2015.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hutcheon L, Hutcheon M. Opera. The art of dying. Cambridge: Harvard University Press; 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lorusso L, Franchini AF, Porro A. Opera and neuroscience. Progress in brain research, vol. 216. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2015. p. 389–409.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Vannoni G. A un dottor della mia sorte. Bologna: Pendragon; 2017.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Willich SN. Physicians in opera – reflection of medical history and public perception. BMJ. 2006;333:1333–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Worth E. The changing role of the physicians in opera. Opera Q. 1994;10:143–55.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sadie S. The new grove dictionary of opera. London: Macmillan Publishers Limited; 1992.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Baker F, Uhlig S, editors. Voicework in music therapy, research and practice. London: Jessica Kingsley Publisher; 2011.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Baker F. Therapeutic songwriting. Developments in theory, methods, and practice. London: Palgrave Macmillan; 2015.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    O’Brien E. Opera therapy. Creating and performing a new work with cancer patients and professional singers. Nord J Mus Ther. 2006;15:82–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Sala E. Women crazed by love. An aspect of romantic opera. Opera Q. 1994;10:19–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Brunner J, Hirsch T, Steger F. Inszenierung von akzentuierten Persönlichkeitszügen in der Barockoper. Opera buffa Arcifanfano – Re dei matti (1749). Nervenarzt. 2016;87:528–33.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Pugliese RM. Il topos della follia nell’opera. Prospettive critiche. In: Sala E, editor. Mad scenes & Songs. Quaderno delle notti Malatestiane. Rimini: Raffaelli; 2002. p. 115–29.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Cambioli L, Bellelli G, Clerici M, Cesana G, Riva MA. “Nabucco” by Giuseppe Verdi. A case of Delirium in an Italian Romantic Opera. Eur Neurol. 2017;77:180–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Finger S, Sironi VA, Riva MA. Somnambulism in Verdi’s Macbeth and Bellini’s La Sonnambula: opera, sleepwalking, and medicine. Progress in brain research, vol. 216. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2015. p. 357–88.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Gallini C. La sonnambula meravigliosa. Magnetismo e ipnotismo nell’Ottocento Italiano. Milano: Feltrinelli; 1983.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Riva MA, Mazzocchi C, Cesana G, Stanley F. ‘Il sonnambulo’ by Michele Carafa: a forgotten romantic opera with sleepwalking. Eur Neurol. 2016;76(5-6):210–1.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Göbel A, Göbel CH, Göbel H. Phenotype of migraine headache and migraine aura of Richard Wagner. Cephalalgia. 2014;34:1004–11.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Göbel CH, Göbel A, Göbel H. “Compulsive plague! Pain without end”. How Richard Wagner played out his migraine in the opera Siegfried. BMJ. 2013;347:f6952.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Scull A. Some reflections on madness and culture in the post-war world. Hist Psychiatry. 2014;25:395–403.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Aydin P, Ritch R, O’Dwyer J. Blindness and visual impairment in opera. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2018;28:6–12.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Fuller D. Dementia at the Opera. The lion’s face. Opera Q. 2011;27:509–21.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Grandi R. Adattamenti, riscritture, burlesques (1681–1860). King Lear dopo Shakespeare. Roma: Aracne; 2013.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Raz C. Music, theater and the moral treatment: the Casa dei Matti in Aversa and Palermo. Laboratoire Italien, vol. 20; 2017. http://journals.openedition.org/laboratoireitalien/1581.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Brocklesby R. Reflections on ancient and modern music with the applications to the cure of diseases: to which is subjoined and essay to solve the question wherein consisted the difference between ancient music, from that of modern times. London: Cooper; 1749.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ficino M. Commentarium in Platonis Phaedrum, IV.3. In: Allen M, editor. Marsilio Ficino and the Phaedron Charioteer. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press; 1981.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Roger L. Traités des Effects de la Musique sur le Corp Umain. Paris: Brunot; 1803.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Gaston ET. Music in therapy. New York, NY: Macmillan; 1968.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kluge CA. Versuch einer Darstellung des animalischen Magnetismus als Heilmittel. Wien; 1815.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Falconi B. Musica e medicina nella Milano di primo Ottocento: l’esempio di Peter Lichtenthal (1780-1853). In: Cristini C, Porro A, editors. Medicina e Musica. Rudiano: GAM; 2008. p. 26–33.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Frigau Manning C. The “musical people” of Italy: a nineteenth-century medical question. Laboratoire Italien, vol. 20; 2017. http://journals.openedition.org/laboratoireitalien/1539.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Didone. Ballo eroico in sei atti incominciato da Salvatore Viganò e terminato da suo fratello Giulio per rappresentarsi nell’I. R. Teatro Alla Scala l’autunno dell’anno 1821. Milano: Pirola; 1821.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Korenjak A. From moral treatment to modern music therapy. On the history of music therapy in Vienna (c. 1820–1960). Nordic J Mus Ther. 2018;27:341–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Lichtenthal P. Trattato dell’influenza della musica sul corpo umano e del suo uso in certe malattie. Milano: Silvestri; 1811.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Porro A, Cristini C. Histoire des évolutions démentielles. In: Arfeux-Vaucher G, Ploton L, editors. Les démences au croisement des non-savoirs. Chemins de la complexité. Rennes: Presses de l’EHESP; 2012. p. 197–208.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Frank GP. Sistema completo di polizia medica. Milano: Pirotta e Maspero; 1807–1818.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Newton I. New theory about light and colours. Phil Trans R Soc. 1671–1672;80:3075–87.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Ione A, Tyler CW. Neuroscience, history and the arts. Synesthesia: is F-sharp colored violet? J Hist Neurosci. 2004;13(1):58–65.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Lorusso L, Porro A. Coloured-hearing synaesthesia in nineteenth-century Italy. In: Rose FC, editor. Neurology of music. London: Imperial College Press; 2010. p. 239–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Porro A. Carlo Botta, medico. Roma: Aracne; 2014.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Botta C. Memoire sur la nature des tons et des sons. Mémoires de l’Académie des Sciences, Littérature et Beaux-Arts de Turin pour les années X et XI., vol. 12. London: Forgotten Books; 1801. p. 191–214.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Lorusso L, Bravi GO, Buzzetti S, Porro A. Filippo Lussana (1820-1897): from medical practitioner to neuroscience. Neurol Sci. 2012;33(3):703–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Zanchin G, Lisotto C, Maggioni F. Filippo Lussana (1820-1897), a physiologist of the Paduan medical faculty and his contribution to Neurology. Italian J Neurol Sci (Suppl) Cogito. 1992;23:79–84.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Lussana F. Sull’udizione colorata. Arch Italiano Malattie Nerv. 1884;21:371–7.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Serravezza A. Helmholtz, Stumpf, Riemann. Un itinerario. Riv Ital Musicol. 1989;24:347–422.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Davis WB. Music therapy in 19th century America. J Mus Ther. 1987;24:76–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Davis WB. The first systematic experimentation in music therapy: the genius of James Leonard Corning. J Music Ther. 2012;49:102–17.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Montinari MR, Giardina S, Minelli P, Minelli S. History of music therapy and its contemporary applications in cardiovascular diseases. South Med J. 2018;111(2):98–102.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Reschke-Hernandez AE. Paula Lind Ayers. “Song-physician” for troops with shell shock during World War I. J Mus Ther. 2014;51:276–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Davis WB. Music therapy practice in New York City: a report from a panel of experts, March 17, 1937. J Mus Ther. 1997;34:68–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Soibelman D. Therapeutic and industrial uses of music. New York, NY: Columbia University Press; 1948.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Washco A Jr. The effects of music upon pulse rate, blood pressure, and mental imagery. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University; 1933.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Brooks D. A history of music therapy journal articles published in the English language. J Mus Ther. 2003;40:151–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Altenmüller E, Schlaug G. Apollo’s gift: new aspects of neurologic music therapy. Progress in brain research, vol. 217. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2015. p. 237–52.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Edwards J. The use of music in healthcare contexts. A select review of writings from the 1890s to the 1940s. Voice. 2008;2:1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Gardner B. Therapeutic qualities of music. Mus Lett. 1944;25:181–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Trappe H-J. Music and Medicine: the effect of music on the human being. Appl Cardiopulm Pathophysiol. 2012;16:133–42.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Kleber B, Birbaumer N, Veit R, Trevorrow T, Lotze M. Overt and imagined singing of an Italian aria. Neuroimage. 2007;36:889–900.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Miu AC, Baltes FR. Empathy manipulation impacts music-induced emotions: a psychophysiological study on opera. PLoS One. 2012;7:e30618.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Riva M, Casarotti A, Comi A, Pessina F, Bello L. Brain and music: an intraoperative stimulation mapping study of a professional opera singer. Case report. World Neurosurg. 2016;93:486.e13–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2016.06.130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Bernardi L, Porta C, Casucci G, Balsamo R, Bernardi NF, Fogari R, Sleight P. Dynamic interactions between musical, cardiovascular, and cerebral rhythms in humans. Circulation. 2009;119:3171–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Burrack F, Maltas C. Engaging elementary-age children with opera. Appl Res Mus Educ. 2002;25:82–9.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Davidson JW. “Passion, lament, glory”: baroque music and modern social justice resonances. J Voice. 2017;17  https://doi.org/10.15845/voices.v17i3.935.
  101. 101.
    Takala T, Häyry M, Laing L. Playing God: the rock opera that endeavors to become a bioethics education tool. Camb Q Healthc Ethics. 2014;23(2):188–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Lauw E. Mianzi and other social influences on music therapy for older Chinese people in Australian aged care. AJMT. 2016;27:57–68.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Yeung H, Baker F, Shoemark H. Song preferences of Chinese older adults living in Australia. Aust J Mus Ther. 2014;25:103–21.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Costa CM. Listening to music: similarities and differences between normal and schizophrenic people. Voice. 2009;9:1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Magree WL, Siegert RJ, Taylot SM, Daveson BA, Lenton-Smith G. Music Therapy Assessment Tool for Awareness in Disorders of Consciousness (MATADOC): reliability and validity of a measure to assess awareness in patients with disorders of consciousness. J Music Ther. 2016;53:1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    McCabe L, Greasley-Adams C, Goodson K. ‘What I want to do is get half a dozen of them and go and see Simon Cowell’. Reflecting on participation and outcomes for people with dementia taking part in a creative musical project. Dementia. 2015;14:734–50.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Matthews S. Dementia and the power of music therapy. Bioethics. 2015;29(8):573–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Soriano JB. On doctors and their operas. A critical (and lyrical) analysis of medicine in opera. Chest. 2018;154(2):409–15.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Spahn C, Echternach M, Zander MF, Voltmer E, Richter B. Music performance anxiety in opera singers. Logoped Phoniatr Vocol. 2010;35(4):175–82.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Rentrop M, Knebel C, Förstl H. Opera-hallucinosis. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2009;24(4):432–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Uchiyama M, Jin X, Zhang Q, Hirai T, Amano A, Bashuda H, Niimi M. Auditory stimulation of opera music induced prolongation of murine cardiac allograft survival and maintained generation of regulatory CDA+CD25+ cells. J Cardiothorac Surg. 2012;7:26.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1749-8090-7-26.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Janata P, Tomic ST, Rakowski SK. Characterization of music-evoked autobiographical memories. Memory. 2007;1(8):845–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lorenzo Lorusso
    • 1
  • Alessandro Porro
    • 2
  1. 1.Neurology Unit, Neuroscience DepartmentASST-LeccoMerateItaly
  2. 2.Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche e di ComunitàUniversità degli Studi di MilanoMilanoItaly

Personalised recommendations