18F-Fluoride: Benign Bone Disease

  • Kalevi Kairemo
  • Homer A. Macapinlac
Part of the Clinicians’ Guides to Radionuclide Hybrid Imaging book series (CGRHI)


Multiple studies support the application of NaF-PET to assess benign osseous conditions. In particular, bone turnover can be measured from NaF uptake to diagnose osteoporosis. Several studies have evaluated the efficacy of bisphosphonates and their lasting effects as treatment for osteoporosis using bone turnover measured by NaF-PET [1]. Additionally, NaF uptake in vessels tracks calcification in the plaques at the molecular level, which is relevant to coronary artery disease (presented in Chaps.  10 and  11). Also, NaF-PET imaging of diseased joints is able to project disease progression in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. Further studies suggest potential use of NaF-PET in domains such as back pain, osteosarcoma, stress-related fracture, and bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw. The critical role of NaF-PET in disease detection and characterization of many musculoskeletal disorders has been clearly demonstrated in the literature, and these methods will become more widespread in the future. The data from PET imaging are quantitative in nature, and as such, it adds a major dimension to assessing disease activity.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kalevi Kairemo
    • 1
    • 2
  • Homer A. Macapinlac
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular RadiotherapyDocrates Cancer CenterHelsinkiFinland
  2. 2.Department of Nuclear MedicineUniversity of Texas MD Anderson Cancer CenterHoustonUSA

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