Interpersonal Conflict and Discipline of Young Child

  • J. Martin Maldonado-DuranEmail author
  • Juan Manuel Sauceda-Garcia


This chapter addresses the question of power differential in marriage and other partner relationships which at times leads to domestic violence during pregnancy. The ideological, socioeconomic, and cultural factors involved in domestic violence are discussed. In some communities, there are protections for women; but even in Western countries, there is a relatively high prevalence, and the issue is often ignored. Parental beliefs about how to set limits to young children, how to teach them behavioral patterns, and how to respond to transgressions vary considerably across cultures. Some cultural groups emphasize reasoning and empathic responses with the young child, while others advocate punishment, based on the belief of an innate inclination to evil by young children. Some cultures use shaming and inducing guilt as behavioral control methods. In the preschool years, there is a higher prevalence of spanking. This practice occurs almost universally although it is legally banned in many countries. Some parents resort to scaring the child with witches, ghosts, and monsters as a behavioral control, leading to a higher frequency of anxiety problems in the preschooler. There is much more evidence of what discipline practices have a negative impact on children, such as those based on authoritarian parenting beliefs. There is less scientific information of what discipline practices might be optimal in different cultural contexts.


Power differential Male dominance Domestic conflict Domestic violence Violence in pregnancy Limit-setting Parental beliefs Time-outs Spanking young child Physical abuse Effects of spanking Positive parenting Democratic parenting Authoritarian parenting beliefs 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Martin Maldonado-Duran
    • 1
    Email author
  • Juan Manuel Sauceda-Garcia
    • 2
  1. 1.Menninger Department of PsychiatryBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, National Academy of MedicineMexico CityMexico

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