Advertisement

What Are Cultures and a Cultural Frame of Mind in Clinical Interventions

  • J. Martin Maldonado-DuranEmail author
  • Clara Aisenstein
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter addresses the question of “what is culture” and what is cultural about what people do, focusing in the perinatal period and early childhood. It describes the fact that animals have cultural practices learned within the social group. Similarly, humans have “innate parenting behaviors” and behaviors that are strongly shaped by culture. There is a universal tendency of promoting what is “best” for children within each culture or ethnic group. The chapter describes practices that could be considered cruel or unusual but which are understandable within a specific belief system. The separation between this world and the underworld, or the world of ancestors or spirits, is not held in many social groups. What we consider “ideal” may be abhorrent in other cultures. The chapter illustrates the notion of blindness to one’s culture and the tendency to hold certain practices as better than all others, “natural,” and more civilized. Finally, there are many differences but also strong commonalities in world views and desires and wishes for the pregnancy and the baby to helps us relate to any couple or family with young children and their wish for optimal outcomes.

Keywords

Caste system Cultural ideal Devaluation of cultures Savages Child-rearing practices Cultural blindness Cultural idealization Parenting beliefs Intuitive parenting Filial piety Indianness Gay parents Human ethology 

References

  1. Allison, A. (2015). Japanese mothers and obentos. The lunchbox as ideological state apparatus. In C. Counihan & P. Van Esterik (Eds.), Food and culture (pp. 154–172). Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  2. Bengton, V. L. (2001). Beyond the nuclear family: The increasing importance of multigenerational bonds. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63, 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boesh, C. (2005). Joint cooperative hunting among wild chimpanzees. Taking natural observations seriously. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28, 692–692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chowdhury, A. N., Mukherjee, H., Ghosh, K. K., & Chowdhury, S. (2003). Puppy pregnancy in humans: A culture bound disorder in rural West Bengal, India. The International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 49(1), 35–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cohen, D., & Leung, A. K. Y. (2009). The hard embodiment of culture. European Journal of Social Psychology, 39, 1278–1289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Davis, J. (2001). American Indian boarding school experiences: Recent studies from native perspectives. OAH Magazine of History, 15, 20–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. DeWaal, F. B. M. (1999). Cultural primatology comes of age. Nature, 299, 635–636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Donot, J. (2007). Lateralization of emotion predicts holding bias in left-handed students but not in left-handed mothers. Laterality, 12, 216–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I. (2004, 2004). Die Biologie des menschlischen Verhaltens. Grundriss der Humanethologie [The Biology of human behavior. Foundation of human Ethology]. Blank Media.Google Scholar
  10. Fromm, E. (1984). The working class in Weimar Germany. A psychological and sociological study. London: Berg.Google Scholar
  11. Geissman, T. (2003). Vergleichende Primatologie [Comparative primatology] (pp. 297–303). Berlin: Springer Verlag.Google Scholar
  12. Gumert, M. D. (2007). Grooming and infant handling interchange in Macaca fascicularis: The relationship between infant supply and grooming payment. International Journal of Primatology, 28(5), 1059–1074.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gutmann, M. (2006). The meaning of macho. Being a man in Mexico City. Men and masculinity. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  14. Hufford, D. J. (1990). Culturally sensitive delivery of health care and human services. In S. Staub (Ed.), Proceedings of the governor’s conference on ethnicity (pp. 35–37). Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Heritage Affairs Commission.Google Scholar
  15. Koester, L. S., & Koester, O. (2005). Seeing babies in a new light. The life of Janus Papousek. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  16. Kozol, J. (1991). Savage inequalities. Children in American schools. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  17. Maas, A. (2009). Commentary. Culture’s two routes to embodiment. European Journal of Social Psychology, 39, 1290–1293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Manuel Honwana, A. (2002). Espiritos vivos. In tradições. Possessoe de espiritos e reintegracao social post-guerra no sul de Mocambique [Spirits alive, traditions, spirit possession and social integration in the post war South of Mozambique]. Mozambique: Promedia.Google Scholar
  19. Mauss, M. (2007). Techniques of the body. In M. Lock & J. Farquhar (Eds.), Beyond the body proper. Reading the anthropology of material life. Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  20. McGrew, C. (2004). The cultured chimpanzee. Reflections on cultural primatology (pp. 63–77). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Perry, S. E. (2006). What cultural primatology can tell anthropologists about the evolution of culture. Annual Review of Anthropology, 35, 171–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Petit, B., & Western, B. (2004). Mass imprisonment and the life course. Race and class inequality in US incarceration. American Sociological Review, 69, 151–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Saraswathi, T. S., & Ganapathy, H. (2002). Indian parents’ ethnotheories as reflections of the Hindu scheme of child and human development. In Between culture and biology: Perspectives on ontogenetic development (pp. 79–88).Google Scholar
  24. Smith, T. W., & Kim, S. (2006). National pride in comparative perspective: 1995/96 and 2003/04. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 18(1), 127–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Turner, V. (1982). From ritual to theatre: The human seriousness of play. New York: PAJ.Google Scholar
  26. Victor, P. E., & Robert-Lamblin, J. (1989). La civilization du phoque. Jeux, gestes et etchniques des eskimo d’Ammassalik [the civilization of the seal games, gestures and techniqeus of the Ammassalik Eskimos]. Paris: Armand Colin and Raymond Chabaud.Google Scholar
  27. Weldon, P. J., Aldrich, J. R., Klin, J. A., Oliver, J. E., & Debboun, M. (2003). Benzoquinones from millipedes deter mosquitoes and elicit self-anointing in Capuchin monkeys (Cebus spp.). Nature, 90(7), 301–304.Google Scholar
  28. World Health Organization (WHO). (1996). Perinatal mortality: A listing of available information. FRH/MSM967. Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar
  29. Yakushko, O. (2008). Xenophobia: Understanding the roots and consequences of negative attitudes toward immigrants. The Counseling Psychologist, 37(1), 36–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Zlotogora, J., Habiballa, H., Odatalla, A., & Barges, S. (2002). Changing family structure in a modernizing society: A study of marriage patterns in a single Muslim village in Israel. American Journal of Human Biology, 14, 680–682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Menninger Department of PsychiatryBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Consultant Psychiatrist, Indian Health ServiceSan DiegoUSA

Personalised recommendations